When times get hard, pop songs get sadder: A 2009 study found that in difficult social and economic moments, Billboard pop songs of the year become “longer, slower, more lyrically meaningful, and in more sober keys.”
But when Coastal Carolina University researchers Jason T. Eastman and Terry F. Pettijohn II (who had also worked on the pop study) decided to investigate country hits instead, they found that the effect of hard times in that genre is nearly the opposite. Eastman and Pettijohn examined the Billboard Country Song of the Year from 1946 to 2008. Using what they call the General Hard Times Measure (GHTM), which factors in such variables as the birth rate and suicide rate as well as unemployment and the consumer price index, they found that in tough times, country hits had more positive lyrics, faster tempos, and more major chords. The singers also tended to be older and were more likely to be female.