NEW YORK —
The rules are meant to help bolster the housing market. By shielding banks from potential litigation, policy makers contend that the industry will have a powerful incentive to make higher quality home loans.
But some banking and housing specialists worry that borrowers are losing a critical safeguard. Industries rarely get broad protection from consumer lawsuits, and banks would seem unlikely candidates given the range of abuses revealed during the housing bust.
“A lot of bad things are done in the name of expanding access to credit, as we found out,’’ said Sheila C. Bair, former chairwoman of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. and now a senior adviser to the Pew Charitable Trusts.
The legal protection stems from the Dodd-Frank Act, the sweeping regulatory overhaul passed in 2010 to help repair the financial system.
The legislation mandated that loans be affordable, but Congress conceded that banks might fear the legal consequences if the mortgages did not comply. So lawmakers created a type of home loan that would have legal protection, called a ‘‘qualified mortgage.’’ In practice, the protection will make it harder for borrowers to sue their lenders in the case of foreclosure.
The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, the fledgling agency that is shaping the rules, faces a crucial but difficult task. Banks are pressing for a strong version of the legal shield. They also want qualified mortgages to be available to a broad range of borrowers, not just those with pristine credit.
Consumer advocates also tend to favor a broad definition for qualified mortgages, to maximize the availability of home loans and increase homeownership.
Big financial institutions have faced an onslaught of litigation since the downturn, although mostly by the government, investors, and other companies instead of borrowers. In February, five large mortgage banks reached a $26 billion settlement with government authorities that aimed, in part, to hold banks accountable for foreclosure abuses.
In writing the proposed rules, the Federal Reserve suggested two approaches. It is up to the consumer agency to define the safeguard for lenders.
One option, called a ‘‘safe harbor,’’ raises the threshold for litigation. In that case, a borrower may win a lawsuit only by showing that the disputed mortgage lacked the precise features required for a qualified mortgage, like a defined amount for points and fees.
A second option would increase borrowers’ ability to challenge a mortgage in court. A loan might appear to comply with the requirements for a qualified mortgage, but the borrower might be able to introduce other evidence that shows the underwriting fell short of the standards.
Moira Vahey, a bureau spokeswoman, said the bureau should be able to meet the Jan. 21 deadline for completing the rule.
The bureau must determine how seriously to take the banks’ assertions that they will cut back on lending without a legal shield. JPMorgan Chase said last year that weaker protection would lead to fewer loans and higher-cost mortgages.
But consumer advocates say banks are overstating the risks. They indicate that few borrowers have sued lenders over the recent foreclosure mess. And they note that states with tough consumer lending laws have not experienced large numbers of borrower lawsuits.
Even a more modest legal shield would still favor the banks, says Alys Cohen, a lawyer at the National Consumer Law Center. In legal terms, it ‘‘presumes’’ from the outset that the banks have met the qualified mortgage standards. Borrowers merely get the chance to ‘‘rebut’’ that presumption. ‘‘You are still putting the finger on the scale on the side of the lender,’’ she said. ‘‘The burden for the borrower is still huge.’’