WASHINGTON — The Federal Reserve cautioned America’s political leaders Wednesday that their policies are hurting the economy.
The Fed stood by its aggressive efforts to stimulate the economy and reduce unemployment. But it sent its clearest signal to date that tax increases and spending cuts that kicked in this year are slowing the economy.
‘‘Fiscal policy is restraining economic growth,’’ the Fed said in a statement after a two-day policy meeting.
The Fed maintained its plan to keep short-term interest rates at record lows at least until unemployment falls to 6.5 percent. And it said it will continue to buy $85 billion a month in Treasury and mortgage bonds. The bond purchases are intended to keep long-term borrowing costs down and encourage borrowing and spending.
The minutes of the previous policy meeting in March showed that many Fed officials were open to reducing the bond purchases before year’s end, so long as the economy improved. But Wednesday’s statement indicated that Fed officials are also open to expanding the bond buying if the economy needs it.
The Fed’s statement signaled its concern about a Social Security tax increase, which took effect Jan. 1, and deep government spending cuts, which began taking effect March 1. The across-the-board spending cuts took effect automatically after Congress failed to reach a budget deal.
Joel Naroff, chief economist at Naroff Economic Advisors, said he viewed the Fed’s more forceful remarks on the issue as criticism of Congress’s fiscal policies.
‘‘The Fed noted that the private economy is pushing ahead, but it is the government that is putting roadblocks in the way,’’ Naroff said. ‘‘That was as clear a shot at Congress as I have seen the Fed take.’’
Democrats in Congress generally agreed with the Fed’s criticism while Republicans took exception.
‘‘Jobs and economic growth should be our top priority right now, which is exactly why we need to replace the irresponsible across-the-board cuts from sequestration with pro-growth and sustainable fiscal policies,’’ said Senate Budget Committee chairwoman Patty Murray, Democrat of Washington.
But House Financial Services Committee chairman Jeb Hensarling said that the Fed’s easy money policies had not helped the economy. ‘‘America is nearly five years into the Fed’s historically unprecedented interventionist policies and there is very little gain to show for it,’’ said the Texas Republican.
Two years ago, chairman Ben Bernanke argued at a Fed conference in Jackson Hole, Wyo., that Congress should do more to stimulate hiring and growth. Since then, Congress hasn’t joined the Fed in trying to stimulate growth. Instead, congressional leaders have focused on deficit reduction and allowed tax increases and spending cuts to take effect.
In its statement Wednesday, the Fed made clear that it could increase or decrease its bond purchases depending on the performance of the job market and inflation.
David Jones, chief economist at DMJ Advisors, said that in saying it could increase or decrease its bond purchases, the Fed wants to show flexibility: It’s ready to respond, whether the economy improves or weakens significantly.
‘‘I think the Fed is in a wait-and-see mode, like the rest of us,’’ Jones said.