Today is Sunday, July 7, the 188th day of 2013. There are 177 days left in the year.
►Today’s birthdays: Musician-conductor Doc Severinsen is 86. Pulitzer Prize-winning author David McCullough is 80. Rock star Ringo Starr is 73. Comedian Bill Oddie (TV: ‘‘The Goodies”) is 72. Singer-musician Warren Entner (The Grass Roots) is 70. Rock musician Jim Rodford is 68. Actor Joe Spano is 67. Pop singer David Hodo (The Village People) is 66. Actress Shelley Duvall is 64. Actress Roz Ryan is 62. Actor Billy Campbell is 54. Rock musician Mark White (Spin Doctors) is 51. Singer-songwriter Vonda Shepard is 50. Actor-comedian Jim Gaffigan is 47. Actress Jorja Fox is 45. Actress Cree Summer is 44. Actress Robin Weigert is 44. Actress Kirsten Vangsness is 41. Actor Troy Garity is 40. Actress Berenice Bejo is 37. Actor Hamish Linklater is 37. Olympic figure skater Michelle Kwan is 33. Rapper Cassidy is 31. Country singer Gabbie Nolen is 31.
►In 1846, the United States annexed California .
►In 1865, four people were hanged in Washington D.C. for conspiring with John Wilkes Booth to assassinate President Abraham Lincoln.
►In 1898, the United States annexed Hawaii.
►In 1919, the Motor Transport Corps convoy, in which a US Army caravan of motorized vehicles crossed the United States, departed Washington D.C.
►In 1937, the Second Sino-Japanese War erupted into full-scale conflict as Imperial Japanese forces attacked the Marco Polo Bridge in Beijing.
►In 1952, the Republican National Convention, which nominated General Dwight D. Eisenhower for president and Senator Richard Nixon for vice president, opened in Chicago.
►In 1963, a Navy jet fighter from Willow Grove Naval Air Station in Pennsylvania crashed into a picnic area, killing seven people; the pilot survived.
►In 1981, President Ronald Reagan announced he was nominating Arizona Judge Sandra Day O’Connor to become the first female justice on the US Supreme Court.
►In 1987, Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North began his long-awaited public testimony at the Iran-Contra hearing, telling Congress that he had ‘‘never carried out a single act, not one,’’ without authorization.
►In 2003, the Columbia investigation team found the “smoking gun” of the spaceship’s crash in February 2003 when a chunk of foam insulation fired at shuttle wing parts blew open a gaping 16-inch hole. NASA launched its second Mars rover, Opportunity. A federal judge approved a settlement fining WorldCom $750 million for its $11 billion accounting scandal.
►In 2008, a suicide bomber struck the Indian Embassy in Kabul, Afghanistan, killing at least 60 people.
►In 2012, jubilant Libyans chose a new parliament in their first nationwide vote in decades. The Obama administration declared Afghanistan the United States’ newest ‘‘major non-NATO ally.’’ Serena Williams won a fifth Wimbledon singles championship; about five hours later, she and sister Venus won their fifth Wimbledon doubles title together. US Representative Barney Frank married his longtime partner, Jim Ready, in a ceremony officiated by Governor Deval Patrick of Massachusetts.