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    Evan Horowitz

    Mass. children No. 1, but compared to whom?

    It’s official. Kids in Massachusetts are number one. That’s the finding of this year’s KIDS COUNT Data Book, which looks across all 50 states and compares things like test scores, child poverty rates, teen pregnancy, and health insurance coverage.

    While it’s nice to see Massachusetts children leading the nation, it’s not that surprising. We’re a very rich state, which means our government has more money to invest in schools, parents can afford more help and enrichment, and almost everyone has access to good health care. Call it the Massachusetts vs. Mississippi problem. Yes, kids in the Commonwealth are doing better than kids in the Magnolia State, which came in 50th out of 50 in the KIDS COUNT rankings. But then we have vastly more resources.

    Money isn’t everything. Policy choices matter too. But if we want to tease out just how effective our policy choices have been, we might go beyond the states and compare ourselves with other, similarly wealthy countries. When we do, the picture looks different. Child poverty turns out to be relatively high in Massachusetts, and while our education system is quite competitive, it is not at the very top.

    Child poverty

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    About 1 in 7 kids in Massachusetts lives in poverty. That’s much better than the nation as a whole, where nearly 1 in 4 kids live in poverty. But by international standards, it’s still quite high.

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    To make good, apples-to-apples comparisons across countries, you need to use a slightly different poverty measure. On this international measure, the US poverty rate comes out a bit better: 21 percent. Massachusetts, however, looks slightly worse, with a child poverty rate of 18 percent. That puts us nearly 30th among developed countries, dramatically higher than the UK (9.8 percent), Germany (8.1 percent), or Finland (3 percent).

    Education

    If there’s one thing Massachusetts kids do really well, it’s take tests. We have the best fourth grade reading scores and the best eighth grade math scores of any state in the country. On average, we perform 5 to 6 percent better than the nation as a whole.

    One of the leading tools for comparing education systems around the world is a test of 15-year-olds called PISA, or Program for International Student Assessment. In 2012, US students came in 27th out of 34 on the math section and 17th in reading, behind nearly every European country and well behind the Asian leaders.

    If Massachusetts students performed 5 to 6 percent than the US average, as they do on national tests, we’d move way up the international ladder. In reading, we’d break the top 10. And while our math scores wouldn’t be quite so good, we’d still lead the UK, France, and Denmark.

    PISA Scores
    MathReading
    Shanghai-China613570
    Singapore573542
    Hong Kong-China561545
    Chinese Taipei560523
    Korea554536
    Macao-China538509
    Japan536538
    Liechtenstein535516
    Switzerland531509
    Netherlands523511
    Estonia521516
    Finland519524
    Canada518523
    Poland518518
    Belgium515509
    Germany514508
    Massachusetts (est.)510523
    Austria506490
    Australia504512
    Ireland501523
    Slovenia501481
    Denmark500496
    New Zealand500512
    Czech Republic499493
    France495505
    United Kingdom494499
    Iceland493483
    Latvia491489
    Luxembourg490488
    Norway489504
    Portugal487488
    Italy485490
    Spain484488
    Russian Federation482475
    Slovak Republic482463
    United States481498
    Lithuania479477
    Sweden478483
    Hungary477488
    Croatia471485
    Israel466486
    Dubai (UAE)4640
    Greece453477

    Source: OECD

    Pre-school attendance

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    Kids who attend high-quality pre-school end up doing better academically and even find higher-paying careers as adults.

    Between 75 and 80 percent of 4-year-olds in Massachusetts go to pre-school, which is higher than the 69 percent rate for the United States as a whole. But it still puts Massachusetts behind 25 other developed countries, including Hungary, Mexico, and France (where virtually 100 percent of 4-year-olds attend pre-school).

    Overall child well-being

    Comparing children across states is one way to assess how they’re faring. But it’s important to keep in mind that relative to other countries, child well-being in the United States is generally quite low. Among other things, the OECD finds that kids in the United States have high infant mortality, low literacy rates, and high levels of “educational deprivation.”

    If we really want to understand how kids in Massachusetts are doing, it makes sense not only to look at how we compare to poorer states, but also how we compare with wealthy countries. More than “Massachusetts vs. Mississippi,” it’s also “Massachusetts vs. the world.”

    Update: A reader reminds me that Massachusetts actually took part in the 2012 PISA exam, and that our results closely match these estimates.

    Evan Horowitz digs through data to find information that illuminates the policy issues facing Massachusetts and the United States. He can be reached at evan.horowitz@globe.com. Follow him on Twitter @GlobeHorowitz