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    A list of Confederate monuments defaced or removed after Charlottesville

    Workers removed a Confederate memorial outside the Circuit Court in Ellicott City, Md., late Monday.
    Mark S. Miller/Howard County Government via Associated Press
    Workers removed a Confederate memorial outside the Circuit Court in Ellicott City, Md., late Monday.

    In the wake of the violence in Charlottesville, Va. earlier this month, about 50 Confederate monuments around the country have been removed, vandalized, or both, according to a Globe review of news reports.

    In some cases — such as in Ellicott City, Md. — government officials made a calculated decision to remove a marker in response to concern from residents about its symbolism and to avoid the possibility of it being defaced or becoming the site for protests that could become violent.

    In other instances, activists have taken matters into their own hands, defacing monuments and trying to tear them down themselves, like protesters in Durham, N.C., managed to do last week.

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    As the Globe reported Tuesday, historians said the emblems of the Confederacy started to turn toxic after Dylann Roof, a white supremacist who adored the Confederate flag, shot and killed nine African-Americans in a South Carolina church in 2015.

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    The tide against the symbols surged, they said, when neo-Nazis and white supremacists protested the removal of a statue of Robert E. Lee in an Aug. 12 rally that turned deadly in Charlottesville, where officials this week decided to shroud that statue, and another of Stonewall Jackson, in black.

    Below is a list of recent cases in which Confederate-linked monuments were removed, vandalized, or both:

    Confederate-linked monuments vandalized, removed The table below is in chronological order and starts with several cases that came before the violence at the Aug. 12 rally in Charlottesville, Va.
    State Where When What Monument Description Year installed More
    MD Frederick Mar. 18 city removed bust of former Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, author of Dred Scott decision 1932 More
    MA Boston, on Georges Island in harbor Jun. 16 state boarded up; deciding next steps headstone commemorating 13 Confederate soldiers 1963 More
    MO St. Louis, in Forest Park late June removed as part of lawsuit settlement Confederate monument 1914 More
    LA New Orleans April-May city removed four Confederate monuments More
    FL Tampa, in park Aug. 13 red paint, derogatory comments written Confederate Memorial Park 2009 More
    FL Gainesville, outside county administration building Aug. 14 splashed with red paint; removed Confederate statue 1904 More
    NC Durham, old county courthouse Aug. 14 toppled Confederate statue 1924 More
    NC Wilmington Aug. 15 red paint statue of Confederate attorney general George Davis 1911 More
    NC Wilmington Aug. 15 red paint Confederate Memorial 1924 More
    AL Birmingham Aug. 15 city covered up memorial to Confederate soldiers 1905 More
    FL St. Petersburg Aug. 15 city removed Confederate marker 1939 More
    MD Baltimore Aug. 15-16 city removed, some had been vandalized four Confederate-linked monuments 1887; 1903; 1917; 1948 More
    TN Knoxville, Fort Sanders neighborhood Aug. 16 green paint Confederate soldiers 1914 More
    CA Los Angeles, Hollywood Forever Cemetery Aug. 16 cemetery removed monument commemorating Confederate veterans 1925 More
    CA San Diego, Horton Plaza Aug. 16 city removed plaque honoring Confederate president Jefferson Davis 1926 More
    WI Madison Aug. 16 city removed two cemetery monuments to Confederate soldiers 1930; 1981 More
    NY Brooklyn, closed church Aug. 16 church removed two plaques honoring Confederate General Robert E. Lee 1912; 1935 More
    NC Duke University Aug. 16; Aug. 19 vandalized; university removed statue of General Robert E. Lee 1920s More
    AZ Gold Canyon area along U.S. Highway 60 Aug. 17 tarred and feathered Plaque commemorating Jefferson Davis 1940s More
    AZ Phoenix, State Capitol Aug. 17 spray-painted Confederate troops monument 1961 More
    OH Franklin Aug. 17 city removed stone marker commemorating Robert E. Lee 1927 More
    NC Winston-Salem Aug. 18 spray painted statue of Confederate soldier 1905 More
    VA Leesburg, outside county courthouse Aug. 18 spray-painted statue of Confederate soldier 1908 More
    MO Kansas City Aug. 18 red spray paint; will be removed monument recognizing women who supported Confederacy and slavery 1934 More
    TX Dallas Aug. 18 spray painted Robert E. Lee statue 1936 More
    MD Annapolis Aug. 18 removed statue of Roger B. Taney 1872 More
    NY Bronx Community College Aug. 18 college removed two busts, one of of Robert E. Lee and another of fellow Confederate general Stonewall Jackson 1901 More
    FL Daytona Beach Aug. 18 city removed three plaques commemorating Confederate soldiers 1961; 1979; 1985 More
    OH Worthington Aug. 18 property owner removed Confederate marker 2004 More
    MT Helena, public park Aug. 18 city removed memorial to Confederate soldiers 1916 More
    IN Indianapolis, Garfield Park Aug. 19 damaged by hammer Confederate soldiers monument 1928 More
    FL Bradenton, next to courthouse Aug. 19 county covered Confederate monument 1924 More
    TX Houston, Hermann Park Aug. 19 man tried to plant explosives statue of Confederate officer Richard Dowling 1905 More
    FL West Palm Beach, Woodlawn Cemetery Aug. 20 red spray paint; stone damaged Confederate monument with carved image of Confederate flag 1941 More
    TX Austin, University of Texas campus Aug. 21 university removed four statues honoring Confederate figures 1930s More
    MD Ellicott City, outside court building Aug. 22 county removed Confederate monument 1948 More
    SOURCE: Globe review of news reports

    The recent vandalism wasn’t limited to Confederate monuments.

    In Atlanta, a Civil War-linked monument was vandalized on Aug. 13. The sculpture, called the Peace Monument, shows an angel standing above a Confederate soldier, guiding him to lay down his weapon, according to reports. It was built as a sign of unity and not to honor the Confederacy.

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    In Chicago, a bust of Abraham Lincoln was covered in tar and set on fire on Aug. 15, reports said.

    Two statues of Christopher Columbus — one in Houston and another in Baltimore — were vandalized this month.

    Here in Boston, a glass panel that makes up part of the New England Holocaust Memorial was smashed on Aug. 13.

    At least one Confederate monument outside the United States has been removed.

    A commemorative plaque honoring Jefferson Davis was removed from a Montreal building on Aug. 15.

    Matt Rocheleau can be reached at matthew.rocheleau@globe.com. Follow him on Twitter @mrochele.