WASHINGTON — Congress returns Tuesday to a crowded agenda of unfinished business overshadowed by the urgent need for President Obama and lawmakers to avert the economic double hit of tax increases and automatic spending cuts.
One week after the elections — and seven weeks after they last gathered in Washington, Republicans and Democrats face a daunting task in a lame-duck session that Capitol Hill fears could last until the final hours of Dec. 31.
But even before serious budget negotiations can begin, lawmakers will tackle leftover legislation on trade with Russia, military budgets, and aiding farmers still reeling from the summer’s drought.
The first days back will be a mix of old and new: choosing down-ballot leaders in the Senate while the 12 new members — three Republicans, eight Democrats, and one independent — are introduced to their colleagues.
The House will welcome some 70 new members, who will get a crash course on how Congress operates with a class on ethics Wednesday.
Although the nation’s voters endorsed the status quo of divided government — a Democratic president and Senate, a Republican House — Obama cruised to reelection and his emboldened party gained seats in both the House and Senate.
In the new political order, Democrats will hold a 55-45 edge in the Senate if independent Angus King of Maine caucuses with them as expected. Republicans’ advantage in the House narrows and probably will stand at 233-201.
Democrats were leading in the six undecided House races in Arizona, California, Florida, North Carolina, and Utah.
The question over the next seven weeks is whether Obama and Congress can agree, now or later on, on how to slash $1.2 trillion from the deficit, raise revenues with possible changes in the tax code, and address the entitlement programs of Social Security and Medicare. And they also have to figure out how to stop across-the-board cuts to defense and domestic programs totaling $110 billion next year.
Obama will meet with congressional leaders at the White House on Friday. Democrats and Republicans recognize the urgency, but the demands remain unchanged.
‘‘If our Republican counterparts can step forward with that revenue piece, we will be able to find a solution,’’ said Senator Patty Murray, a Washington Democrat, Sunday on ABC’s ‘‘This Week.’’ “We can’t accept an unfair deal that piles on the middle class and tell them they have to support it. We have to make sure that the wealthiest Americans pay their fair share.’’
The GOP insists that tax rate increases are a nonstarter. ‘‘There’s a right way to do this and there’s a wrong way to do it,’’ Senator Saxby Chambliss, a Georgia Republican, said Sunday.
House Speaker John Boehner, an Ohio Republican, has signaled that a solution is imperative. ‘‘2013 should be the year we begin to solve our debt through tax reform and entitlement reform,’’ he told reporters last week.
Republicans and Democrats will meet Wednesday morning in the Senate to decide leadership jobs, with Senator John Cornyn, a Texas Republican, expected to move up to the GOP’s number two spot, replacing Senator Jon Kyl, of Arizona, who is retiring.
In the House, Representatives. Cathy McMorris Rodgers, a Washington Republican, and Representative Tom Price, a Georgia Republican, are vying for the number four job. The biggest question in the House ranks is whether the minority leader, Nancy Pelosi of California, remains in her leadership job.
Crucial in the House this week is passage of legislation that would end Cold War trade restrictions so that US exporters can take advantage of the lowered tariffs and greater market access that accompany Russia’s entry into the World Trade Organization.
Russia officially joined the WTO in August and the United States is alone among more than 150 WTO members in not being able to enjoy the more open Russian market.
The measure has been a top priority of US business groups seeking to expand business in the growing Russian economy. To placate critics of Russia’s poor human rights record, the trade bill is combined with legislation that would sanction Russian officials involved in human rights violations.
A five-year farm bill passed by the Senate and by a House committee last summer will either have to be extended into next year or passed in the remaining weeks of the session. The 2008 farm bill expired Sept. 30.
The bill’s only real chance for passage is if lawmakers decide to use its savings as part of negotiations on the so-called ‘‘fiscal cliff.’’
The Senate bill would save $23 billion over 10 years and the House Agriculture Committee bill would save $35 billion over 10 years.