WASHINGTON — In the days since the massacre at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Conn., a shell-shocked nation has looked for reasons. The list of culprits cited include easy access to guns, a strained mental-health system, and the ‘‘culture of violence’’ — the entertainment industry’s embrace of violence in movies, television shows, and, especially, video games.
‘‘The violence in the entertainment culture — particularly with the extraordinary realism to video games, movies now, et cetera — does cause vulnerable young men to be more violent,’’ Senator Joe Lieberman, Independent of Connecticut, said.
‘‘There might well be some direct connection between people who have some mental instability and when they go over the edge, they transport themselves, they become part of one of those video games,’’ said Governor John Hickenlooper of Colorado, where 12 people were killed in a movie theater shooting in July.
White House adviser David Axelrod tweeted, ‘‘But shouldn’t we also quit marketing murder as a game?’’
Donald Trump weighed in, tweeting, ‘‘Video game violence & glorification must be stopped — it is creating monsters!’’
There have been unconfirmed media reports that 20-year-old Newtown shooter Adam Lanza enjoyed a range of video games, from the bloody ‘‘Call of Duty’’ series to the innocuous ‘‘Dance Dance Revolution.’’
But the same could be said for about 80 percent of Americans in Lanza’s age group, according to the Pew Internet and American Life Project. Law enforcement officials have not made any connection between Lanza’s possible motives and his interest in games.
The video game industry has been mostly silent since the attack, in which 20 children and six adults were killed. The Entertainment Software Association, which represents game publishers in Washington, has yet to respond to politicians’ criticisms. Hal Halpin, president of the nonprofit Entertainment Consumers Association, said, ‘‘I’d simply and respectfully point to the lack of evidence to support any causal link.’’
It is unlikely that lawmakers will pursue legislation to regulate the sales of video games; such efforts were rejected again and again in a series of court cases over the last decade. Indeed, the industry seemed to have moved beyond the entire issue last year, when the Supreme Court revoked a California law criminalizing the sale of violent games to minors.
The Supreme Court decision focused on First Amendment concerns; in the majority opinion, Justice Antonin Scalia wrote that games ‘‘are as much entitled to the protection of free speech as the best of literature.’’
Scalia also agreed with the ESA’s argument that researchers have not established a link between media violence and real-life violence.
‘‘Psychological studies purporting to show a connection between exposure to violent video games and harmful effects on children do not prove that such exposure causes minors to act aggressively,’’ Scalia wrote.
Still, that doesn’t make games impervious to criticism, or even some soul-searching within the gaming community. At this year’s E3 — the Electronic Entertainment Expo, the industry’s largest US gathering — some attendees were stunned by the intensity of violence on display.
A demo for Sony’s ‘‘The Last of Us’’ ended with a villain taking a shotgun blast to the face. A scene from Ubisoft’s ‘‘Splinter Cell: Blacklist’’ showed the hero torturing an enemy. A trailer for Square Enix’s ‘‘Hitman: Absolution’’ showed the protagonist slaughtering lingerie-clad assassins disguised as nuns.
‘‘The ultraviolence has to stop,’’ designer Warren Spector told the GamesIndustry website after E3. ‘‘I do believe that we are fetishizing violence, and now in some cases actually combining it with an adolescent approach to sexuality. I just think it’s in bad taste. Ultimately I think it will cause us trouble.’’