WASHINGTON — Scott Harrison knows his charity has funded nearly 7,000 clean water projects in some of the poorest areas of the world in the past six years. But how many of those wells are still flowing with drinking water months or years later is a tough question to answer.
His organization, called Charity: Water, has funded projects in 20 countries. It says it is committed to spending 100 percent of each donation in the field to help reach some of the 800 million people who don’t have clean water and resort to drinking from swamps, unhealthy ponds, or polluted rivers.
Organizers send donors photos and GPS coordinates for each water project they pay for. Still, Harrison, a former New York promoter for nightclubs and fashion events, has had to guess at how many water projects are still working.
He wants to give donors more assurance — knowing that as many as a third of hand pumps built by various governments or groups stop functioning later — and has proposed installing sensors to monitor the water flow at each well.
Few funders want to pay for a nonprofit’s technical infrastructure or take the risk of funding a dreamy idea. They would rather pay for real work on the ground.
But this month, Google stepped in with major funding to create and install sensors on 4,000 wells across Africa by 2015 that will send back real-time data on the water flow at each site.
The $5 million grant could be a game changer for Charity: Water to ensure that its projects are sustainable, to raise money for maintenance, and to empower developing countries to maintain their infrastructure with new data.
‘‘You could imagine a water minister salivating over this technology, even a president of a country being able to hold his water ministers in different districts accountable, saying, ‘Hey, look, I want a dashboard in my office where I can see how my small, rural water projects are performing,’ ’’ Harrison said.
The grant is part of the first class of Google’s Global Impact Awards totaling $23 million to spur innovation among nonprofits.
Advocates say the new annual grants are a part of a growing trend in venture philanthropy from funders who see technology as an instrument for social change. Such donors say they can have a bigger impact funding nonprofits that find ways to multiply their efforts through technology.
The gifts also represent a shift in the tech company’s approach to philanthropy.
Google’s director of charitable giving, Jacquelline Fuller, said the company analyzed its giving, including $115 million in grants last year. It decided it could have a greater impact by funding nonprofit tech innovation, rather than specific issue areas or existing projects. Its grants will come with volunteer consulting on each project from Google engineers or specialists.
‘‘We’re really looking for the transformational impact’’ from clever uses of technology, Fuller said. But that sometimes involves the risk that new technologies may not work.
‘‘Informed risk is something Google understands,’’ she said. ‘‘There’s actually very few dollars available that’s truly risk capital, lenders willing to take informed risk to help back some of these new technologies and innovations that may not pan out.’’
The largest source of funding for US nonprofits is government, mostly through contracts that come with strings attached. Individual donors contribute significant support to charities as well, and the nation’s foundations give about 14 percent of overall philanthropy to nonprofits.
‘‘There is sort of a new breed of philanthropists coming into the field,’’ including many who made money in the tech sector at a young age, said Bradford Smith, president of the Foundation Center, an information clearinghouse on nonprofits. ‘‘There I think you’re seeing a really interesting sort of confluence of almost kind of a venture, risk-taking approach and technology as an instrument for social change.’’
Google zeroed in on projects that could develop new technology to scale up smaller projects targeting the environment, poverty, education, and gender issues.
It’s giving $5 million to the World Wildlife Fund to develop high-tech sensors for wildlife tagging to detect and deter poaching of endangered species. Another $3 million is going to a project at the Smithsonian Institution to develop DNA barcoding as a tool to stop illegal trading of endangered plants or animals smuggled across borders.
That project could give six developing countries DNA testing materials with fast results to use as evidence to prosecute smugglers.
To fuel future innovation, Google is giving Donorschoose.org $5 million to create 500 new Advanced Placement courses in math, science, and technology for US schools that are committed to enrolling girls and minority students.
The charity GiveDirectly will receive $2.4 million to expand its model of direct mobile cash transfers to poor families in Kenya as a new method for lifting people out of poverty.