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Climate contradiction: Less snow, more blizzards

2 studies detail global warming, extreme weather

WASHINGTON — With scant snowfall and barren ski slopes in parts of the Midwest and Northeast the past couple of years, some scientists have pointed to global warming as the culprit.

Then when a whopper of a blizzard smacked the Northeast with more than 2 feet of snow earlier this month, some of the same people again blamed global warming. How can that be? It’s been a joke among skeptics, pointing to what seems to be a brazen contradiction.

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But the answer lies in atmospheric physics. A warmer atmosphere can hold, and dump, more moisture, scientists say. Two new studies attempt to explain how there can be more giant blizzards yet less snow across the country each year. That trend is expected to continue because of global warming.

The United States has been walloped by twice as many of the most extreme snowstorms in the past 50 years than in the previous 60 years, according to an upcoming study on extreme weather by leading federal and university scientists.

This also fits with a dramatic upward trend in extreme winter precipitation — both rain and snow — in the Northeast, as charted by the National Climatic Data Center.

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Yet the Global Snow Lab at Rutgers University says that spring snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere has shrunk on average by 1 million square miles in the last 45 years. And an upcoming study in the Journal of Climate says computer models predict annual global snowfall to shrink by more than a foot in the next 50 years. The study’s author said most people live in parts of the United States that are likely to see annual snowfall drop between 30 and 70 percent by the end of the century.

‘‘Shorter snow season, less snow overall, but the occasional knockout punch,’’ Princeton University scientist Michael Oppenheimer said. ‘‘That’s the new world we live in.’’

Ten climate scientists say the idea of less snow and more blizzards makes sense: A warmer world is likely to decrease the overall amount of snow falling each year and shrink snow season. But when it is cold enough for a snowstorm to hit, the slightly warmer air is often carrying more moisture, producing potentially historic blizzards.

‘‘Strong snowstorms thrive on the ragged edge of temperature — warm enough for the air to hold lots of moisture, meaning lots of precipitation, but just cold enough for it to fall as snow,’’ said Mark Serreze, director of the National Snow and Ice Data Center. ‘‘Increasingly, it seems that we’re on that ragged edge.’’

Pennsylvania State University climate scientist Michael Mann points to the Northeast storm that dumped more than 30 inches in some places.

He said it was the result of a perfect set of conditions for such an event: Arctic air colliding with unusually warm oceans that produced large amounts of moisture and big temperature contrasts, which drive storms. Those all meant more energy, more moisture and thus more snow, he said.

There have been several similar examples in the Northeast in recent years. Chicago, which until late January had 335 days without more than an inch of snow, also had been hit with historic snowstorms.

Scientists won’t blame a specific event or even a specific seasonal change on global warming without doing intricate and time-consuming studies. And they say they are just now getting a better picture of the complex intersection of man-made climate change and extreme snowfall.

But when Serreze, Oppenheimer, and others look at the recent years of less snow overall, punctuated by big storms, they say this is what they are expecting in the future.

The world is warming so precipitation that would normally fall as snow in the future will likely fall as rain once it gets above the freezing point, said Princeton researcher Sarah Kapnick.

Her study used new computer models to simulate the climate in 60 to 100 years as carbon dioxide levels soar. She found large reductions in snowfall throughout much of the world, especially parts of Canada and the Andes Mountains.

In the United States, her models predict about a 50 percent or more drop in annual snowfall amounts along a giant swath of the nation from Maine to Texas and the Pacific Northwest and California’s Sierra Nevada mountains.

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