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US forming cyber teams to take offensive

General warns infrastructure threat is real

General Keith Alexander, the top officer at US Cyber Command, said that more aggressive steps need to be taken to improve digital defenses against ‘‘low-level harassment of private and public websites, property, and information.”

Manuel Balce Ceneta/Associated Press/File 2010

General Keith Alexander, the top officer at US Cyber Command, said that more aggressive steps need to be taken to improve digital defenses against ‘‘low-level harassment of private and public websites, property, and information.”

WASHINGTON — The Defense Department is establishing a series of cyber teams charged with carrying out offensive operations to combat the threat of an electronic assault on the United States that could cause major damage and disruption to the country’s vital infrastructure, a senior military official said Tuesday.

General Keith Alexander, the top officer at US Cyber Command, warned during testimony that the potential for an attack against the nation’s electric grid and other essential systems is real and more aggressive steps need to be taken by the federal government and the private sector in order to improve digital defenses.

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Alexander told the Senate Armed Services Committee that foreign leaders are deterred from launching cyber attacks on the United States because they know such a strike could be traced to its source and would generate a robust response.

But the country is not preventing what Alexander called ‘‘low-level harassment of private and public websites, property, and information by other states.’’ He did not mention any specific countries, even though the Obama administration is escalating its criticism of cyber thefts by China that have become intolerable to the international community.

Offensive cyber weapons are growing and evolving, Alexander said, and it is only a matter of time before tools developed by other nations wind up in the hands of extremist groups or even individuals who could do significant harm.

Alexander said 13 cyber teams are being formed for the mission of guarding the nation in cyberspace. He described them as ‘‘defend-the-nation’’ teams but stressed their role would be offensive. In comments to reporters after the hearing, Alexander likened the teams’ duties to knocking an incoming missile out of the sky before it hits a target. He also said the teams would work outside the United States, but he did not say where.

He also said another 27 cyber teams are being established to support the military’s warfighting commands while others will protect Defense Department computer systems and data.

But even as Alexander detailed these moves, he pushed lawmakers to pass cyber security legislation that would make it easier for the government and the private sector — which controls critical infrastructure such as the electric grid, banking systems, chemical facilities, and water treatment systems — to share detailed information about who is getting hacked and what to do about it.

President Obama signed an executive order last month that relies heavily on participation from US industry in creating new voluntary standards for protecting information and expands the government’s effort to provide companies with threat data. But the order doesn’t do enough to address the threat, administration officials said. Unresolved issues include the legal liability facing companies if they divulge information, and whether companies should be compelled to meet certain security standards.

The general also told the committee that there needs to be a clear consensus on how the nation is organized to protect critical infrastructure from cyber attacks. ‘‘It takes a team to operate in cyberspace,’’ Alexander said. ‘‘But at times, I think, in talking about the team approach, we’re not clear on who’s in charge when.’’

Another issue that still needs to be settled is what constitutes an act of war in cyberspace, Alexander said. He does not consider cyber espionage and the theft of a corporation’s intellectual property to be acts of war. But Alexander said, ‘‘I think you’ve crossed the line’’ if the intent is to disrupt or destroy US infrastructure.

Senator Carl Levin, Democrat of Michigan, the committee’s chairman, noted that Obama recently issued a classified policy directive to govern cyber operations. The Pentagon also has developed a list of procedures on how to respond in ‘‘cyber crisis’’ situations, he added, and the Pentagon is expected to issue cyber rules of engagement for military commanders.

‘‘The fact that these foundational policy frameworks and planning actions are just now taking shape serves as a stark illustration of how immature and complex this warfare domain remains,’’ Levin said.

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