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US censoring more files, analysis finds

WASHINGTON — More often than ever, the Obama administration censored government files or denied access to them last year under the Freedom of Information Act, according to an analysis of federal data by the Associated Press.

The administration cited more legal exceptions that it said justified withholding materials. It also refused a record number of times to turn over files quickly that might be especially newsworthy. Most agencies also took longer to answer records requests, the analysis found.

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The government’s own figures from 99 federal agencies covering six years show that half way through its second term, the administration has made few meaningful improvements in the way it releases records despite promises from Day 1 to be the most transparent administration in history.

In category after category — except for reducing numbers of old requests and a slight increase in how often it waived copying fees — the government’s efforts to be more open about its activities last year were their worst since President Obama took office.

In a year of intense public interest on the National Security Agency’s surveillance programs, the government cited national security to withhold information a record 8,496 times — a 57 percent jump over a year earlier and more than double Obama’s first year, when it cited that reason 3,658 times.

The Defense Department, including the NSA, and the CIA accounted for nearly all those. The Agriculture Department’s Farm Service Agency cited national security six times, the Environmental Protection Agency did twice, and the National Park Service once.

And five years after Obama directed agencies to less frequently invoke a ‘‘deliberative process’’ exception to withhold materials describing decision-making behind the scenes, the government did it anyway, a record 81,752 times.

‘‘I’m concerned the growing trend toward relying upon FOIA exemptions to withhold large swaths of government information is hindering the public’s right to know,’’ said Senator Patrick Leahy, a Vermont Democrat and chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee. ‘‘It becomes too much of a temptation. If you screw up in government, just mark it top secret.’’

Citizens, journalists, businesses, and others last year made a record 704,394 requests for information, an 8 percent increase over the previous year. The government responded to 678,391 requests, an increase of 2 percent over the previous year.

The AP analysis showed that the government more than ever censored materials it turned over or fully denied access to them, in 244,675 cases or 36 percent of all requests. On 196,034 other occasions, the government said it could not find records, a person refused to pay for copies, or the government determined the request to be unreasonable or improper.

Sometimes, the government censored only a few words or an employee’s phone number, but other times it completely marked out nearly every paragraph on pages.

The White House said the government’s figures demonstrate ‘‘that agencies are responding to the president’s call for greater transparency.’’

White House spokesman Eric Schultz noted that the government responded to more requests than previously and said it released more information. ‘‘Over the past five years, federal agencies have worked aggressively to improve their responsiveness to FOIA requests, applying a presumption of openness and making it a priority to respond quickly,’’ Schultz said.

Sunday was the start of Sunshine Week, when news organizations promote open government and freedom of information.

The chief of the Justice Department’s Office of Information Policy, which oversees the open records law, told the Senate last week that some of the 99 agencies in the past five years have released documents in full or in part in more than 90 percent of cases.

She noted the record number of requests for government records, which exceeded 700,000 for the first time last year, and said decisions are harder than ever.

‘‘The requests are more complex than they were before,’’ director Melanie Pustay told the Senate Judiciary Committee.

The government said the average time it took to answer a records request ranged from less than one day to nearly two years. AP’s analysis showed most agencies took longer to answer requests than the previous year, although the White House said the government responded more quickly.

The government’s responsiveness under the FOIA is widely viewed as a barometer of its transparency.

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