WASHINGTON — Democrats gave a boost Tuesday to the pillar of President Obama’s plans for reducing gun violence, pushing a bill requiring nearly universal federal background checks for firearms buyers through the Senate Judiciary Committee over solid Republican opposition.
The proposal still faces a difficult path through Congress, where GOP lawmakers say it would have little impact on crime and warn that it is a precursor to a federal registry of gun owners. Such a listing is forbidden by federal law and is anathema to conservatives and the National Rifle Association.
The committee approved the bill 10-8, supported by every Democrat and opposed by all Republicans. It would require background checks for transactions between private individuals — they are now mandatory only for sales by licensed gun dealers — and expand a system designed to keep firearms from criminals, those with major mental problems and others.
‘‘This isn’t going to be a perfect bill,’’ said its sponsor, Senator Chuck Schumer, a New York Democrat, acknowledging that it wouldn’t end gun violence. ‘‘But it will sure reduce crimes.’’
The panel also voted 14-4 for a measure providing an additional $40 million annually for school safety improvements like classroom locks and training for teachers. Four Republicans joined Democrats in backing that measure, which initially called for a higher figure that was reduced in bargaining between Senators Barbara Boxer, Democrat of California, and Susan Collins, a Maine Republican.
Awaiting a committee vote Thursday is a proposal by Senator Dianne Feinstein, Democrat of California, to ban assault weapons and high-capacity ammunition magazines. That bill is expected to win panel approval but die in the full Senate when the chamber considers gun legislation, probably in April.
Tuesday’s session came as lawmakers wrestle over responding to December’s carnage at an elementary school in Newtown, Conn., that took the lives of 20 students and six educators. It also underscored the hurdles faced by expanded background checks, which has been seen as the most potent step lawmakers could take that has a fighting chance of passing Congress.
‘‘Mass shootings would continue to occur despite universal background checks,’’ said Iowa Senator Charles Grassley, the committee’s top Republican. ‘‘Criminals will continue to steal guns and buy them illegally to circumvent the requirements. When that happens, we will be back here debating whether gun registration is needed. And when registration fails, then the next step is gun confiscation.’’
Schumer said he is continuing to negotiate with Republicans in hopes of crafting a compromise background-check bill. Talks failed with conservative Senator Tom Coburn, an Oklahoma Republican.
Schumer also faces potential defections from a half-dozen moderate Democrats from Republican-leaning states in the South and West who face reelection next year.
There are 53 Democrats in the 100-member Senate and two independents who usually side with them. Republicans are likely to force Democrats to get the 60 votes needed to advance legislation.
Leaders in the GOP-dominated House have expressed little support for extending background checks to private transactions. At one point during Tuesday’s debate, Schumer sounded almost wistful about the proposal’s prospects. ‘‘It’s sad,’’ he said. ‘‘Right after Newtown, there was a view that maybe the right place that we could all come together on was background checks.’’