BEIRUT — The Assad family’s grip on Syria has never looked so tenuous.
After 17 months of violence and an estimated 17,000 people killed, a lightning-quick turnaround in the momentum of the civil war has put President Bashar Assad’s forces on the defensive, a sign that his once-impenetrable family dynasty is wobbling.
For the first time, the rebels have brought a sustained fight to Damascus, the seat of Assad’s power, in a powerful signal that the regime cannot protect its own capital. On Friday, reports of intense fighting in Aleppo, Syria’s second-largest city, suggest that the rebels are making a run on another major government stronghold.
And now, more than ever before during the four-decade Assad dynasty, there are signs that the inner circle is unraveling. A stunning rebel bombing that killed four of Assad’s top lieutenants Wednesday was a strike that almost certainly involved the hand of a trusted insider.
The coming days will be crucial to determining whether the regime can recover from blow after devastating blow, which have eviscerated any sense that the head of one of the Middle East’s most autocratic states can hold on indefinitely.
Trying to retain their grip on power, regime forces are stretched to the limit. The government is pulling its most powerful troops from around the country to reinforce Damascus, which allows rebels to swoop in and take over key areas after the soldiers abandon their positions or leave them only lightly guarded.
In the past two days, rebels seized border crossings in Iraq and Turkey, ushering in scenes of bloody chaos.
A stream of high-level defections points to growing unease among the most privileged classes who count on the regime for their livelihoods and perks. Brigadier General Manaf Tlass, an Assad confidant and son of a former defense minister, defected to France earlier this month.
Although the government still has the firepower to hang on — possibly for months or more — the future is bleak.
The increasingly sectarian overtones to much of the violence suggest that any power vacuum will usher in a bloodbath pitting Syria’s majority Sunni population against the Assad family’s minority Alawite sect, which is an offshoot of Shi’ite Islam.
Sunnis make up most of Syria’s 22 million people, as well as the backbone of the opposition. But Assad is relying heavily on his Alawite power base to crush the uprising, prompting revenge attacks and fear among other minorities that they face retribution if the regime falls.
The opposition, which is fractious and lacks any real central command, has no hope of pacifying the country. There is no clear candidate to step in and lead should Assad go. And the violence has become far more unstable than many had ever imagined, with Al Qaeda and other extremists joining the ranks of those fighting to topple the regime.
Despite the rebel gains, the battle for Syria is not over yet. Although the rebels appear more powerful than at any stage of the uprising, their small-caliber weapons and rampant disorganization will make it all but impossible to defeat the regime in direct battle.