ALMATY, Kazakhstan — Iran and world powers trying to curb Iran’s nuclear progress are coming to the negotiating table this week with the window shrinking on diplomacy. Tehran is moving closer to achieving the ability to make atomic arms, and that increases the threat of Mideast conflict.
Israel says Iran is only a few months away from the threshold of having material to turn into a bomb and has vowed to use all means to prevent it from reaching that point. The United States has not said what its ‘‘red line’’ is, but has said it will not tolerate an Iran armed with nuclear weapons.
Any strike on Iran would provoke fierce retaliation directly from Iran and through its Middle East proxies in Syria, Lebanon, and the Palestinian territories, raising the specter of a larger Middle East conflict. The stakes are clearly high for negotiators from six nations meeting their Iranian counterparts in the Kazakh commercial capital, Almaty, on Friday and Saturday.
While not mentioning the use of force, the United States and Israel both warned Iran ahead of that meeting that they would not allow it to acquire nuclear arms.
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel said Iran is a model of a country that is ‘‘talking but at the same time developing nuclear weapons.’’
‘‘I think that model certainly can’t be allowed to happen in the case of Iran,’’ Netanyahu said Wednesday after meeting with Foreign Minister Espen Eide of Norway.
In Washington, a senior administration official urged Tehran to meet demands from the six powers that it scale back on uranium enrichment — a potential path to nuclear weapons — citing President Obama’s saying that ‘‘all options remain on the table’’ to prevent Iran from having such arms. The official demanded anonymity as a condition for speaking on the issue.
The six — the United States, Russia, China, Britain, France, and Germany — hope the talks will result in at least an incremental advance in a decade of efforts to reduce Iran’s bomb-making capacities by curbing its uranium enrichment program.
The two sides parted in February after meeting in Almaty with agreement to at least keep talking over a new proposal submitted by the six. But they remain vastly divided on what they want from each other.
Iran wants an end to the punishing sanctions crippling its economy. They were imposed to force it to end uranium enrichment, a process that can generate both nuclear energy and the core of nuclear weapons. Iran denies any interest in atomic arms, insists its enrichment program serves only peaceful needs, says it has a right to enrich under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, and describes UN Security Council demands that it stop enrichment as illegal.
‘‘We are talking about peaceful nuclear energy,’’ Saeed Jalili, Iran’s chief nuclear negotiator, said before the latest talks. He said Iran had a right to such a program and accused a handful of countries of working to deny this right to others.
The six have moved from demanding a total end to enrichment.
As a first step, they now are asking Tehran only to stop production and stockpiling of uranium enriched to 20 percent, which is just a technical step away from weapons-grade uranium. A halt to production and stockpiling would keep Iran’s supply below the amount needed for further processing into a weapon.