Regarding the investigation into cheating at Harvard College: In 1962, I entered Hamilton College. The student honor board met with each freshman and explained the rules. Only the students enrolled in a class would be present — not the professor — when an exam was given. This procedure applied to quizzes, hour exams, midterms, and finals.
At the end of each exam, every student signed a pledge on the last page: “I have neither given nor received aid in this examination.” Every paper prepared outside of class required another written and signed pledge: “This is my own work unless otherwise indicated.”
All violations were handled by the honor board, composed only of students. Although cheating may have been present, I never witnessed or heard of anyone cheating during my four years.
Open-book exams and take-home exams were unknown at this time.
Ah, the good old days.