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The Boston Globe

Sports

A brief history of technology in sports

1888

Photo finish

One of the first photo finishes reportedly takes place at a horse race in Plainfield, N.J., forever changing the way the world judges close contests.

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1936

Electrical scoring

In an early example of automated officiating, fencing judges are replaced by an electrical scoring system in epee events, detecting the fastest touches more accurately.

1955

Instant replay

The first use of instant replay features a goal scored during a Canadian hockey broadcast. Decades later, it becomes a key technology for officials.

1957

Timing touch pads

A University of Michigan physics professor invents swimming touch pads and the school uses them at meets, making times more accurate and cutting down the number of officials on crowded pool decks.

1968

Fully automated timing

At the Mexico City Olympics, track and several other sports use timing systems that electronically start and stop with results accurate down to a hundredth of a second.

1975

Referee microphones

NFL referees use microphones for the first time, letting them explain rulings to the fans watching.

1980

Electronic line judging

The Cyclops computer system debuts at Wimbledon, using infrared beams to help determine whether shots are in or out.

1983

Chip timing

Transponders are introduced into racing, tracking and timing participants individually. Chip timing revolutionizes road racing when brought to that sport in 1992.

1998

Virtual first-down line

During football games, broadcasts use yellow lines to show the distance needed for a first down. Like instant replay, the technology could move from the broadcast booth to an electronic aid for officials.

2001

Pitch tracking

Major League Baseball employs technology that tracks pitches and measures strike zones, monitoring home plate umpires with cameras and computer analysis.

2012

Goal-line technology

FIFA approves two goal-line systems to signal when a soccer player scores. One system uses high-speed cameras, the other employs a magnetic field.

SHIRA SPRINGER

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