One of the first photo finishes reportedly takes place at a horse race in Plainfield, N.J., forever changing the way the world judges close contests.
In an early example of automated officiating, fencing judges are replaced by an electrical scoring system in epee events, detecting the fastest touches more accurately.
The first use of instant replay features a goal scored during a Canadian hockey broadcast. Decades later, it becomes a key technology for officials.
Timing touch pads
A University of Michigan physics professor invents swimming touch pads and the school uses them at meets, making times more accurate and cutting down the number of officials on crowded pool decks.
Fully automated timing
At the Mexico City Olympics, track and several other sports use timing systems that electronically start and stop with results accurate down to a hundredth of a second.
NFL referees use microphones for the first time, letting them explain rulings to the fans watching.
Electronic line judging
The Cyclops computer system debuts at Wimbledon, using infrared beams to help determine whether shots are in or out.
Transponders are introduced into racing, tracking and timing participants individually. Chip timing revolutionizes road racing when brought to that sport in 1992.
Virtual first-down line
During football games, broadcasts use yellow lines to show the distance needed for a first down. Like instant replay, the technology could move from the broadcast booth to an electronic aid for officials.
Major League Baseball employs technology that tracks pitches and measures strike zones, monitoring home plate umpires with cameras and computer analysis.
FIFA approves two goal-line systems to signal when a soccer player scores. One system uses high-speed cameras, the other employs a magnetic field.