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Tropical Storm Gert forms in the Atlantic, but is expected to be short-lived

The NOAA Okeanos Explorer sits at a dock on Friday, June 23, 2023, in Kodiak, Alaska. The ship, a reconfigured former US Navy vessel run by civilians and members of the NOAA Corps, is specially outfitted with technology and tools needed to access deep into the ocean, and to share that data with the public and on-shore researchers in real-time.Joshua A. Bickel/Associated Press

Tropical Storm Gert formed early Monday, becoming the latest named storm of the 2023 Atlantic hurricane season.

Within a span of 18 hours, three tropical storms formed in the Atlantic Ocean — Emily, Franklin and now Gert — signaling that hurricane season is far from over despite a relatively quiet summer and that the remainder of the season could see a flurry of activity as some experts have predicted.

The National Hurricane Center estimated that Gert had sustained winds of 40 mph with higher gusts. Tropical disturbances that have sustained winds of 39 mph earn a name. Once winds reach 74 mph, a storm becomes a hurricane, and at 111 mph it becomes a major hurricane.

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Gert formed about 485 miles east of the Leeward Islands in the Caribbean and was moving west northwest. There were no coastal watches or warnings in effect. The storm was expected to become a remnant low later on Monday and dissipate on Tuesday.

The Atlantic hurricane season started on June 1 and runs through Nov. 30.

In late May, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration predicted that there would be 12 to 17 named storms this year, a “near-normal” amount. On Aug. 10, NOAA officials revised their estimate upward, to 14 to 21 storms.

There were 14 named storms last year, after two extremely busy Atlantic hurricane seasons in which forecasters ran out of names and had to resort to backup lists. (A record 30 named storms took place in 2020.)

This year features an El Nino pattern, which arrived in June. The intermittent climate phenomenon can have wide-ranging effects on weather around the world, and it typically impedes the number of Atlantic hurricanes.

In the Atlantic, El Nino increases the amount of wind shear, or the change in wind speed and direction from the ocean or land surface into the atmosphere. Hurricanes need a calm environment to form, and the instability caused by increased wind shear makes those conditions less likely. (El Nino has the opposite effect in the Pacific, reducing the amount of wind shear.)

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At the same time, this year’s heightened sea surface temperatures pose a number of threats, including the ability to supercharge storms.

That unusual confluence of factors has made solid storm predictions more difficult.

“Stuff just doesn’t feel right,” Klotzbach said after NOAA released its updated forecast in August. “There’s just a lot of kind of screwy things that we haven’t seen before.”

There is solid consensus among scientists that hurricanes are becoming more powerful because of climate change. Although there might not be more named storms overall, the likelihood of major hurricanes is increasing.

Climate change is also affecting the amount of rain that storms can produce. In a warming world, the air can hold more moisture, which means a named storm can hold and produce more rainfall, like Hurricane Harvey did in Texas in 2017, when some areas received more than 40 inches of rain in less than 48 hours.

Researchers have also found that storms have slowed down, sitting over areas for longer, over the past few decades.

When a storm slows down over water, the amount of moisture the storm can absorb increases. When the storm slows over land, the amount of rain that falls over a single location increases; in 2019, for example, Hurricane Dorian slowed to a crawl over the northwestern Bahamas, resulting in a total rainfall of 22.84 inches in Hope Town during the storm.

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Other potential effects of climate change include greater storm surge, rapid intensification and a broader reach of tropical systems.