WASHINGTON — Women in the United States have recovered all the jobs they lost to the Great Recession. The same cannot be said for men, who remain 2.1 million jobs short.
The biggest factor is that men dominate construction and manufacturing — industries that have not recovered millions of jobs lost during the downturn. By contrast, women have made up a disproportionate share of workers in those that have been hiring — retail, education, health care, restaurants, and hotels.
‘‘It’s a segregated labor market, and men and women do work in different industries, and even in different areas within industries,’’ says Heidi Hartmann, an economist and president of the Institute for Women’s Policy Research.
The gap was seen in August jobless rates: 6.8 percent for women, 7.7 percent for men.
In August, 68 million women said they were employed, passing the more than the 67.97 million who had jobs when the recession began in December 2007, the government said. Among men, 76.2 million were employed last month, down from 78.3 million in December 2007.
Since June 2009, one of the largest gains occurred in a measure of education and health services jobs. That category added nearly 1.6 million jobs, second most of any industry. And women gained nearly 1.1 million of those jobs.
Women have made big gains in professional and business services, a grab-bag category that includes architects, engineers, information-technology workers, and temps. Women also make up more than half of the workforce in hotels and restaurants.
Men and women have been retiring, enrolling in school, registering for Social Security disability payments, or just giving up on a weak job market.