SAN JOSE, Calif. — Arwin Buditom guards some of the most successful high-tech firms in America. Joseph Farfan keeps their heat, air, and electric systems humming. But these workers and tens of thousands like them who help fuel the Silicon Valley’s tech boom can’t even make ends meet anymore. Buditom rooms with his sister an hour’s drive from work. Farfan gets his groceries at a food pantry.
‘‘It’s unbelievable until you’re in the middle of it,’’ Farfan said, standing in line at the Sacred Heart Community Center in San Jose for free pasta, rice, and vegetables. ‘‘Then the reality hits you.’’
Silicon Valley is entering a fifth year of unfettered growth. The median household income is $90,000, according to the Census Bureau. The average single-family home sells for about $1 million. The airport is adding an $82 million private jet center.
But the river of money flowing through this 1,800-square-mile peninsula, stretching from south of San Francisco to San Jose, also has driven housing costs to double in the past five years while wages for low- and middle-skilled workers are stagnant. Nurses, preschool teachers, security guards, and landscapers commute, sometimes for hours, from less-expensive inland suburbs.
Now the widening income gap between the wealthy and those left behind is sparking debate, anger, and sporadic protests.
In Cupertino, security guards rallied outside Apple’s shareholder meeting on Feb. 28 demanding better wages. ‘‘What’s the matter with Silicon Valley? Prosperity for some, poverty for many. That’s what,’’ read their banner.
Farfan, 44, a native of the valley, said he figured he must be mismanaging his $23-an-hour salary to be struggling. But when he met with financial counselors, they told him there was nothing left to cut except groceries because rent, child support, and transportation expenses were eating away the rest of his money.
Buditom, also 44, said the reality of working for some of the nation’s richest companies has sapped his belief in the American dream. For the past four years, he has been living in his sister’s apartment, commuting an hour for a $13-an-hour security job.
‘‘I’m so passed over by the American dream, I don’t even want to dream it anymore,’’ said Buditom, who emigrated from Indonesia 30 years ago. ‘‘It’s impossible to get ahead. I’m just trying to survive.’’
Buditom stays because he wants to be near his family who help support him. Farfan stays to be near his 9-year-old daughter; he shares custody with his wife.
‘‘I just have to swallow my pride,’’ Farfan said. ‘‘You gotta do what you gotta do because in the end pride is not going to feed you.’’
From the White House to the Vatican to the world’s business elite, the growing gap between the very wealthy and everyone else is seizing agendas. Three decades ago, Americans’ income tended to grow at roughly similar rates, no matter how much they made. But since about 1980, income has grown most for the top earners. For the poorest 20 percent of families, it has dropped.
Once a peaceful paradise of apricot, peach, and prune orchards, the region is among the most expensive places to live in the United States. Those earning $50,000 a year in Dallas would need to make $77,000 a year in the Silicon Valley to maintain the same quality of life, according to the Council for Community and Economic Research; $63,000 if they moved from Chicago or Seattle.
Housing costs are largely to blame. An $800-a-month, two-bedroom apartment near AT&T’s Dallas headquarters would cost about $1,700 near Google’s Mountain View headquarters. Dental visits, hamburgers, washing machine repairs, movie tickets — all are above national averages.
Five years ago, Sacred Heart was providing food and clothing for about 35,000 people a year. This year it expects to serve more than twice that. On one brisk morning recently, families, working couples, disabled people, and elderly lined up out the door for free bags of food, just miles from the bustling tech campuses.
Those firms, meantime, are increasingly opting to build their own infrastructure rather than depend on public systems and have become social bubbles, with their own child-care centers, cafes, dry cleaning services, gyms, onsite health providers, and hair salons. EBay changes its employees’ oil; Facebook repairs their bikes. Some of those workers are in-house, with good salaries. Others are contracted out.
The companies also have put money back into the communities. In the past three years, Google has given nearly $60 million to area nonprofits, including Second Harvest Food Bank. The firm also gives grants to advance math and science education. Every June workers are encouraged to volunteer during a weeklong event called GoogleServe. Apple donated $50 million for new buildings at Stanford University.
‘‘Google strives to be a good neighbor in the communities where we work and live,’’ Google spokeswoman Meghan Casserly said.
Still, said Poncho Guevara, who runs Sacred Heart: ‘‘The juxtaposition of the innovation and growth happening here, compared to the social needs, portends what’s going to be playing out in the rest of the country in years to come.’’