Thursday, July 4, is the 185th day of 2013. There are 180 days left in the year. This is Independence Day.
Today’s birthdays: Actress Eva Marie Saint is 89. Actress Gina Lollobrigida is 86. Playwright Neil Simon is 86. Singer Bill Withers is 75. Journalist Geraldo Rivera is 70. R&B musician Ralph Johnson (Earth, Wind & Fire) is 62. Singer John Waite is 58. Tennis Hall of Famer Pam Shriver is 51. Presidential daughter Malia Obama is 15.
In 1776, the Declaration of Independence was adopted by delegates to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia.
In 1802, the United States Military Academy officially opened at West Point, N.Y.
In 1826, the second president of the United States, John Adams, and the third, Thomas Jefferson, both died. Adams died in Quincy at age 90; Jefferson in Charlottesville, Va., at age 83.
In 1831, the fifth president, James Monroe, died in New York City at age 73.
In 1863, the Civil War siege of Vicksburg, Miss., ended as a Confederate garrison surrendered to Union forces.
In 1872, the 30th president, Calvin Coolidge, was born in Plymouth, Vt.
In 1939, Lou Gehrig of the Yankees delivered his farewell speech in which he called himself ‘‘the luckiest man on the face of the earth.’’
In 1976, Israeli commandos raided Entebbe airport in Uganda, rescuing almost all of the passengers and crew of an Air France jetliner seized by pro-Palestinian hijackers.
In 2012, scientists at the European Center for Nuclear Research in Geneva cheered the apparent end of a long quest for a new subatomic particle called the Higgs boson, or ‘‘God particle.’’