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Today is Friday, Aug. 23, the 235th day of 2019. There are 130 days left in the year.

Birthdays: Nobel economist Robert Solow of MIT is 95. Actress Vera Miles is 89. Actress Barbara Eden is 88. Political satirist Mark Russell is 87. Football Hall of Famer Sonny Jurgensen is 85. Ballet dancer Patricia McBride is 77. Former surgeon general Antonia Novello is 75. Football Hall of Famer Rayfield Wright is 74. Actor David Robb is 72. Singer Linda Thompson is 72. Actress Shelley Long is 70. Actor-singer Rick Springfield is 70. Queen Noor of Jordan is 68. Actor-producer Mark Hudson is 68. The Strokes singer Julian Casablancas is 41. Retired NBA player Kobe Bryant is 41. Actress Jaime Lee Kirchner is 38.

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In 1775, Britain’s King George III proclaimed the American colonies to be in a state of ‘‘open and avowed rebellion.’’

In 1914, Japan declared war against Germany in World War I.

In 1927, amid worldwide protests, Italian-born anarchists Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were executed in Boston for the murders of two men during a 1920 robbery. (On the 50th anniversary of their executions, then-Governor Michael Dukakis issued a proclamation that Sacco and Vanzetti had been unfairly tried and convicted.)

In 1939, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union agreed to a non-aggression treaty, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, in Moscow.

In 1973, a bank robbery-turned-hostage-taking began in Stockholm, Sweden; the four hostages ended up empathizing with their captors, a psychological condition now referred to as ‘‘Stockholm Syndrome.’’

In 1982, Lebanon’s parliament elected Christian militia leader Bashir Gemayel president. (However, Gemayel was assassinated some three weeks later.)

In 2003, former priest John Geoghan, the convicted child molester whose prosecution sparked the sex abuse scandal that shook the Roman Catholic Church nationwide, died after another inmate attacked him in Souza-Baranowski Correctional Center.

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In 2008, Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama introduced the choice of his running mate, Senator Joe Biden of Delaware, before a crowd outside the Old State Capitol in Springfield, Ill.

In 2013, a military jury convicted Major Nidal Hasan in the deadly 2009 shooting rampage at Fort Hood, Texas that claimed 13 lives; the Army psychiatrist was later sentenced to death. Staff Sargeant Robert Bales, the US soldier who’d massacred 16 Afghan civilians, was sentenced at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington, to life in prison with no chance of parole.

In 2014, Israel bombed an apartment tower in downtown Gaza City, collapsing the 12-story building in an unprecedented strike.

Last year, Mark David Chapman, the killer of former Beatle John Lennon, was denied parole for a 10th time. The United States and China imposed tariff increases on an additional $16 billion of each other’s goods.