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This day in history

Today is Wednesday, July 1, the 183rd day of 2020. There are 183 days left in the year.

Birthdays: Actress Olivia de Havilland is 104. Actress-dancer Leslie Caron is 89. Actress Jean Marsh is 86. Actor Jamie Farr is 86. Cookiemaker Wally Amos is 84. Dancer-choreographer Twyla Tharp is 79. Actress Genevieve Bujold is 78. Blonde singer Deborah Harry is 75. Director Michael Pressman is 70. B-52’s singer Fred Schneider is 69. Actor-comedian Dan Aykroyd is 68. Actor Alan Ruck is 64. Olympic gold medal track star Carl Lewis is 59. Actor Andre Braugher is 58. Actress Pamela Anderson is 53. Actor Henry Simmons is 50. Hip-hop artist Missy Elliott is 49. Actress Melissa Peterman is 49. The National drummer Bryan Devendorf is 45. Actress Liv Tyler is 43. Actress Hilarie Burton is 38. Actress Storm Reid is 17.

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In 1863, the pivotal, three-day Civil War Battle of Gettysburg, resulting in a Union victory, began in Pennsylvania.

In 1867, Canada became a self-governing dominion of Great Britain as the British North America Act took effect.

In 1912, aviator Harriet Quimby, 37, was killed along with her passenger, William Willard, when they were thrown out of Quimby’s monoplane at the Third Annual Boston Aviation Meet.

In 1944, delegates from 44 countries began meeting at Bretton Woods, N.H., where they agreed to establish the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.

In 1946, the United States exploded a 20-kiloton atomic bomb near Bikini Atoll in the Pacific.

In 1963, the US Post Office inaugurated its five-digit ZIP codes.

In 1966, the Medicare federal insurance program went into effect.

In 1991, President George H.W. Bush nominated federal appeals court judge Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court, beginning an ultimately successful confirmation process marked by allegations of sexual harassment.

In 1997, Hong Kong reverted to Chinese rule after 156 years as a British colony.

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In 2002, the world’s first permanent war crimes tribunal, the International Criminal Court, came into existence. A Russian passenger jet collided with a cargo plane over southern Germany, killing all 69 people, including 45 schoolchildren, on the Russian plane and the cargo jet pilots.

In 2004, actor Marlon Brando died in Los Angeles at age 80.

In 2009, Academy Award-winning actor Karl Malden, 97, died in Brentwood, Calif.

In 2015, after more than a half-century of hostility, the United States and Cuba declared they would reopen embassies in each other’s capitals, marking a historic full restoration of diplomatic relations between the Cold War foes. Episcopalians voted overwhelmingly at their General Convention in Salt Lake City to allow religious weddings for same-sex couples.

Last year, 15-year-old Coco Gauff, the youngest player to qualify at Wimbeldon in the professional era, defeated 39-year-old Venus Williams in the first round, 6-4, 6-4. Hundreds of protesters swarmed into Hong Kong’s legislature, defacing portraits of lawmakers and spray-painting pro-democracy slogans in the chamber before vacating it as riot police cleared surrounding streets with tear gas.