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This day in history

Today is Friday, July 31, the 213th day of 2020. There are 153 days left in the year.

Birthdays: Actor Don Murray is 91. Jazz guitarist-musician Kenny Burrell is 89. Singer Lobo is 76. Actress Geraldine Chaplin is 76. Former movie studio executive Sherry Lansing is 76. Singer Gary Lewis is 75. Former Massachusetts governor William Weld is 75. Tennis Hall of Famer Evonne Goolagong Cawley is 69. Jazz pianist-musician Michael Wolff is 68. Former Massachusetts governor Deval Patrick is 64. Entrepreneur Mark Cuban is 62. Actor Wesley Snipes is 58. Musician Fatboy Slim is 57. Actor Dean Cain is 54. Actor Jim True-Frost is 54. Actor Ben Chaplin is 51. Country singer-musician Zac Brown is 42. Actor-producer-writer B.J. Novak is 41. Actor Eric Lively is 39. N HL center Evgeni Malkin is 34. Hip-hop artist Lil Uzi Vert is 26.

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In 1715, a fleet of Spanish ships carrying gold, silver, and jewelry sank during a hurricane off the east Florida coast; of some 2,500 crew members, more than 1,000 died.

In 1777, during the Revolutionary War, the Marquis de Lafayette, a 19-year-old French nobleman, was made a major-general in the American Continental Army.

In 1945, Pierre Laval, premier of the pro-Nazi Vichy government, surrendered to US authorities in Austria; he was turned over to France, which later tried and executed him.

In 1954, Pakistan’s K2 was conquered as two members of an Italian expedition, Achille Compagnoni and Lino Lacedelli, reached the summit.

In 1964, the American space probe Ranger 7 reached the moon, transmitting pictures back to Earth before impacting the lunar surface.

In 1971, Apollo 15 crew members David Scott and James Irwin became the first astronauts to use a lunar rover on the surface of the moon.

In 1972, Democratic vice-presidential candidate Thomas Eagleton withdrew from the ticket with George McGovern following disclosures that Eagleton had once undergone psychiatric treatment.

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In 1981, a seven-week-old Major League Baseball strike ended.

In 1991, President George H.W. Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty in Moscow.

In 2003, the Vatican launched a global campaign against gay marriages, warning Catholic politicians that support of same-sex unions was “gravely immoral” and urging nonCatholics to join the offensive.

In 2014, the death toll from the worst recorded Ebola outbreak in history surpassed 700 in West Africa.

Last year, the Federal Reserve cut its key interest rate for the first time in a decade to try to counter the impact of President Trump’s trade wars. The Senate confirmed Kelly Craft to become the next US ambassador to the United Nations. Broadway director and producer Harold Prince, winner of 21 Tony Awards for shows including “The Phantom of the Opera” and “Cabaret,” died.