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A top Vermont environmental official said it could cost more than $300 million to upgrade sewage treatment plants in more than 40 cities and towns if the state does not pursue another plan for reducing phosphorus in Lake Champlain. Environmental Conservation Commissioner David Mears said waste-water treatment plants probably would be a top focus of federal efforts to clean the lake if the Environmental Protection Agency was put in charge. State officials, including Governor Peter Shumlin, have been trying to avoid that, saying Vermont has a more cost-effective plan to reduce phosphorus in the lake by focusing on reducing runoff from farms, roads, and parking lots. Officials at the EPA regional office in Boston said they are encouraged by a cleanup bill under review in the Vermont State House.