In the wake of the violence in Charlottesville, Va. earlier this month, about 50 Confederate monuments around the country have been removed, vandalized, or both, according to a Globe review of news reports.
In some cases — such as in Ellicott City, Md. — government officials made a calculated decision to remove a marker in response to concern from residents about its symbolism and to avoid the possibility of it being defaced or becoming the site for protests that could become violent.
In other instances, activists have taken matters into their own hands, defacing monuments and trying to tear them down themselves, like protesters in Durham, N.C., managed to do last week.
As the Globe reported Tuesday, historians said the emblems of the Confederacy started to turn toxic after Dylann Roof, a white supremacist who adored the Confederate flag, shot and killed nine African-Americans in a South Carolina church in 2015.
The tide against the symbols surged, they said, when neo-Nazis and white supremacists protested the removal of a statue of Robert E. Lee in an Aug. 12 rally that turned deadly in Charlottesville, where officials this week decided to shroud that statue, and another of Stonewall Jackson, in black.
Below is a list of recent cases in which Confederate-linked monuments were removed, vandalized, or both:
|State||Where||When||What||Monument Description||Year installed||More|
|MD||Frederick||Mar. 18||city removed||bust of former Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, author of Dred Scott decision||1932||More|
|MA||Boston, on Georges Island in harbor||Jun. 16||state boarded up; deciding next steps||headstone commemorating 13 Confederate soldiers||1963||More|
|MO||St. Louis, in Forest Park||late June||removed as part of lawsuit settlement||Confederate monument||1914||More|
|LA||New Orleans||April-May||city removed||four Confederate monuments||More|
|FL||Tampa, in park||Aug. 13||red paint, derogatory comments written||Confederate Memorial Park||2009||More|
|FL||Gainesville, outside county administration building||Aug. 14||splashed with red paint; removed||Confederate statue||1904||More|
|NC||Durham, old county courthouse||Aug. 14||toppled||Confederate statue||1924||More|
|NC||Wilmington||Aug. 15||red paint||statue of Confederate attorney general George Davis||1911||More|
|NC||Wilmington||Aug. 15||red paint||Confederate Memorial||1924||More|
|AL||Birmingham||Aug. 15||city covered up||memorial to Confederate soldiers||1905||More|
|FL||St. Petersburg||Aug. 15||city removed||Confederate marker||1939||More|
|MD||Baltimore||Aug. 15-16||city removed, some had been vandalized||four Confederate-linked monuments||1887; 1903; 1917; 1948||More|
|TN||Knoxville, Fort Sanders neighborhood||Aug. 16||green paint||Confederate soldiers||1914||More|
|CA||Los Angeles, Hollywood Forever Cemetery||Aug. 16||cemetery removed||monument commemorating Confederate veterans||1925||More|
|CA||San Diego, Horton Plaza||Aug. 16||city removed||plaque honoring Confederate president Jefferson Davis||1926||More|
|WI||Madison||Aug. 16||city removed||two cemetery monuments to Confederate soldiers||1930; 1981||More|
|NY||Brooklyn, closed church||Aug. 16||church removed||two plaques honoring Confederate General Robert E. Lee||1912; 1935||More|
|NC||Duke University||Aug. 16; Aug. 19||vandalized; university removed||statue of General Robert E. Lee||1920s||More|
|AZ||Gold Canyon area along U.S. Highway 60||Aug. 17||tarred and feathered||Plaque commemorating Jefferson Davis||1940s||More|
|AZ||Phoenix, State Capitol||Aug. 17||spray-painted||Confederate troops monument||1961||More|
|OH||Franklin||Aug. 17||city removed||stone marker commemorating Robert E. Lee||1927||More|
|NC||Winston-Salem||Aug. 18||spray painted||statue of Confederate soldier||1905||More|
|VA||Leesburg, outside county courthouse||Aug. 18||spray-painted||statue of Confederate soldier||1908||More|
|MO||Kansas City||Aug. 18||red spray paint; will be removed||monument recognizing women who supported Confederacy and slavery||1934||More|
|TX||Dallas||Aug. 18||spray painted||Robert E. Lee statue||1936||More|
|MD||Annapolis||Aug. 18||removed||statue of Roger B. Taney||1872||More|
|NY||Bronx Community College||Aug. 18||college removed||two busts, one of of Robert E. Lee and another of fellow Confederate general Stonewall Jackson||1901||More|
|FL||Daytona Beach||Aug. 18||city removed||three plaques commemorating Confederate soldiers||1961; 1979; 1985||More|
|OH||Worthington||Aug. 18||property owner removed||Confederate marker||2004||More|
|MT||Helena, public park||Aug. 18||city removed||memorial to Confederate soldiers||1916||More|
|IN||Indianapolis, Garfield Park||Aug. 19||damaged by hammer||Confederate soldiers monument||1928||More|
|FL||Bradenton, next to courthouse||Aug. 19||county covered||Confederate monument||1924||More|
|TX||Houston, Hermann Park||Aug. 19||man tried to plant explosives||statue of Confederate officer Richard Dowling||1905||More|
|FL||West Palm Beach, Woodlawn Cemetery||Aug. 20||red spray paint; stone damaged||Confederate monument with carved image of Confederate flag||1941||More|
|TX||Austin, University of Texas campus||Aug. 21||university removed||four statues honoring Confederate figures||1930s||More|
|MD||Ellicott City, outside court building||Aug. 22||county removed||Confederate monument||1948||More|
The recent vandalism wasn’t limited to Confederate monuments.
In Atlanta, a Civil War-linked monument was vandalized on Aug. 13. The sculpture, called the Peace Monument, shows an angel standing above a Confederate soldier, guiding him to lay down his weapon, according to reports. It was built as a sign of unity and not to honor the Confederacy.
In Chicago, a bust of Abraham Lincoln was covered in tar and set on fire on Aug. 15, reports said.
Here in Boston, a glass panel that makes up part of the New England Holocaust Memorial was smashed on Aug. 13.
At least one Confederate monument outside the United States has been removed.
A commemorative plaque honoring Jefferson Davis was removed from a Montreal building on Aug. 15.