BUDAPEST — Gyula Horn, a former Hungarian prime minister who played a key role in opening the Iron Curtain, has died at the age of 80.
He was best known internationally for his announcement as foreign minister in 1989 that Hungary would allow East German refugees to leave the country for West Germany, one of the key events that helped bring an end to communism in Eastern Europe.
Mr. Horn’s death Wednesday was announced by the Hungarian government and confirmed by the Socialist Party, which he led to victory in the 1994 elections. He had been hospitalized for years at a military hospital in Budapest, receiving treatment for undisclosed ailments.
Tens of thousands of East Germans had traveled to Hungary in spring and summer 1989 as expectations mounted that the more moderate Communist country might open its borders to the West.
About 600 East Germans took advantage of a picnic organized by Hungarian prodemocracy activists on the border with Austria on Aug. 19 to cross over to the Western neighbor. In the weeks after the picnic, East Germans continued to make attempts to cross, although many were still turned back. Then, on Sept. 11, it fell on Mr. Horn to make public the government’s decision to allow all East Germans to travel west.
The exodus was followed a few months later by the fall of the Berlin Wall and the start of the reunification of the two parts of Germany.
The decision to let the East Germans leave was not without risks for Hungary, where 80,000 Soviet troops were stationed and where democratic elections would not be held until March 1990.
While Miklos Nemeth, Hungary’s last communist prime minister, and other officials also deserve credit for the decision, Mr. Horn largely built his reputation in Western Europe, especially in Germany, on the announcement.
An iconic photograph from June 1989 showing Mr. Horn and Foreign Minister Alois Mock of Austria cutting through the wires of the fence separating the two countries enhanced Mr. Horn’s image as a man who helped bring down the Iron Curtain.
Mr. Horn’s ‘‘courageous work as Hungarian foreign minister will remain unforgettable to us Germans,’’ Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle of Germany said Wednesday.
‘‘Gyula Horn literally cut open the Iron Curtain that had divided Europe for 40 years,’’ Westerwelle said. ‘‘We are taking leave of a great European who did the right thing at a decisive moment in European history.’’
At home, however, Mr. Horn faced bitter criticism, especially because of his months-long stint in an armed communist militia, the ‘‘pufajkasok,’’ after Hungary’s anti-Soviet Revolution of 1956.
Mr. Horn claimed he never fired his weapon as a member of the militia and once famously answered ‘‘So what?’’ to a question in Parliament about his role after the defeated uprising.
In May 1990, Mr. Horn became president of the Socialist Party, which he had helped shape out of the ruins of the former Communist Party. The party had just been soundly defeated in the first democratic elections in more than four decades, but they managed to win a majority in the 1994 elections and on July 15 Mr. Horn became prime minister.
He was in office until 1998 and was followed by Viktor Orban, Hungary’s current prime minister.
Although Mr. Horn remained a parliamentary deputy until 2010, he did not attend any legislative sessions after 2007 because of his deteriorating physical and mental condition.
He made his last public speech July 6, 2007, at a celebration of his 75th birthday at the Hungarian National Gallery, an event attended by former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev.
While Mr. Horn received several international awards for his actions of 1989, his nominations by the Socialists to receive high state awards on his 70th and 75th birthdays were rejected by two Hungarian presidents because of his communist past.
Mr. Horn grew up in dire poverty in a working-class district of Budapest, the third of eight siblings.
‘‘I was born into the darkest poverty, constantly in want; even getting enough food was an unending problem,’’ Mr. Horn wrote in his 1991 autobiography.
His father was killed in 1944 and a brother in 1956, both because of their communist affiliations.
Mr. Horn wrote of being a breadwinner by the time he was 11, pitching in after his family was evicted in the middle of winter because his mother could not come up with the rent.
In 1950, as a member of the Communist Youth, he was picked to study in the Soviet Union and spent four years studying accounting in Rostov, Russia, on a scholarship.
Upon his return from Russia he started work at the Finance Ministry, a job that involved travel in the country. ‘‘Everywhere I went I saw big problems, tension, although there were areas where things were not that bad,’’ he wrote.
Mr. Horn married Anna Kiraly in 1956, and he left finance for foreign affairs in 1959. He was assigned as an attache to Sofia in 1961 and later to Belgrade.
For the next 16 years Mr. Horn worked in the foreign affairs section of the Communist Party’s Central Committee. In April 1985, he became deputy foreign minister and on May 11, 1989, foreign minister.
He leaves his wife and two children, Anna and Gyula Jr.