WASHINGTON — The government unlocked its doors Thursday after 16 days, with President Obama saluting the resolution of Congress’ bitter standoff but lambasting Republicans for the partial shutdown that he said had damaged the US economy and America’s credibility around the world.
‘‘There are no winners here,’’ Obama said just hours after signing a last-minute measure from Congress that was free of the Republican demands that had started the showdown. The deal allowed federal workers to return Thursday morning and headed off the threat that the nation would default on its debts, at least for this year.
‘‘The American people are completely fed up with Washington,’’ Obama said in stern remarks at the White House. The nation’s credit rating was jeopardized, economic growth and hiring were slowed, and federal workers were temporarily deprived of paychecks, Obama said, all because of ‘‘yet another self-inflicted crisis.’’
The financial services company Standard & Poor’s estimated the shutdown drained $24 billion out of the economy, and it can’t all be recouped. That’s about $75 for each US resident. Fitch credit rating agency is reviewing its AAA rating on US government debt for a possible downgrade.
In hopes of averting another standoff when the just-passed measure runs out, Congress’ four top budget writers met over breakfast to begin new talks on spending and borrowing issues that have bedeviled the divided government for years.
Obama warned lawmakers about disagreements so bitter they could ‘‘degenerate into hatred’’ and urged a shift toward cooperation. He called for Congress to come up with a long-term agreement for restraining Medicare and Social Security spending and to pass immigration and farm and food bills that have floundered amid partisan disputes.
He also sought to assure governments and investors around the world that the ‘‘full faith and credit of the United States remains unquestioned.’’
‘‘We’ll bounce back from this,’’ Obama declared. ‘‘We always do.’’
The House and Senate voted late Wednesday night to end the shutdown that began when Republicans tried unsuccessfully to use must-pass funding legislation to derail the president’s landmark health care law.
Early Thursday, Obama signed the measure and directed all agencies to reopen promptly. Government workers unlocked office doors, carried barriers away from national monuments, and lifted entrance gates at national parks.
The relief felt by furloughed federal employees was tempered by worry that the truce might not last much past the holidays. Congress approved government funding only through Jan. 15.
To head off a default, the package gives the government the authority to borrow what it needs through Feb. 7. Treasury officials will be able to use bookkeeping maneuvers to delay a potential default for several weeks beyond that date, as they have done in the past. Among the maneuvers, officials can suspend contributions to one of the pension plans used by federal retirees.
In the meantime, lawmakers will try to find agreement on how to replace this year’s across-the-board spending cuts with more orderly deficit reduction.
‘‘I hope this is the end of this,’’ said Vice President Joe Biden, who greeted workers returning to the Environmental Protection Agency with hugs, handshakes, and muffins. But Biden acknowledged, ‘‘There’s no guarantees of anything.’’
The small group of lawmakers tasked with steering Congress out of three years of budget stalemates offered no promises.
House Budget Committee Chairman Paul Ryan, a Wisconsin Republican, said the group’s goals were ‘‘to get this debt under control, to do smart deficit reduction, and to do things that we think will grow the economy and get people back to work.’’
‘‘We believe there is common ground,’’ Senate Budget Committee Chairwoman Patty Murray, a Washington Democrat, said after their meeting.
The impasse furloughed about 800,000 workers at its peak, before civilian Defense Department employees were called back. It closed down most of NASA, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Interior Department and halted work not considered critical at other agencies.
Congress agreed to pay federal workers for the missed time. No such luck for contractors and all sorts of other workers whose livelihoods were disrupted.
‘‘More business. More money,’’ cab driver Osman Naimyar said happily, noting the growing crowds of commuters on Washington streets. He lost about a fifth of his normal fares, he said, while federal workers stayed home and tourists disappeared from the National Mall.