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CINCINNATI — A federal judge on Monday ordered Ohio to recognize the marriages of same-sex couples performed in other states, and civil rights attorneys and gay marriage supporters immediately began looking ahead to their next fight: a lawsuit seeking to force Ohio to allow gay couples to marry.

Judge Timothy Black’s ruling was a partial but significant victory for gay rights supporters, who called it a stepping stone for full marriage equality in the state.

Black ruled that Ohio’s refusal to recognize gay marriage is a violation of constitutional rights and ‘‘unenforceable in all circumstances.’’

‘‘The record before this court . . . is staggeringly devoid of any legitimate justification for the state’s ongoing arbitrary discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation,’’ Black wrote.

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The state plans to appeal Black’s ruling, arguing that Ohio has a sovereign right to ban gay marriage, which voters did overwhelmingly in 2004.

Al Gerhardstein, the Cincinnati civil rights attorney who filed the lawsuit that led to Black’s ruling, said Monday that he’s been speaking with several gay couples who want to win the right to marry in Ohio. He plans to file a lawsuit in the matter in the next couple weeks.

He called Black’s ruling ‘‘a sweeping declaration’’ in favor of gay marriage and thinks the judge has clearly indicated he would rule in favor of forcing Ohio to allow gay couples to marry in the state.

Black delayed deciding whether to issue a stay of Monday’s ruling pending appeal until attorneys on both sides present arguments on the issue by Tuesday.

However, Black said he’s inclined to put the ruling on hold pending appeal, except for a portion that applies to the four gay couples who filed the February lawsuit leading to the court case. That would mean the state would immediately have to recognize their marriages and list both spouses as parents on their children’s birth certificates.

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If Black declines to stay his ruling, that would allow gay couples in Ohio to obtain the same benefits as any other married couple in the state, including property rights and the right to make some medical decisions for their partner.

Ed FitzGerald, the presumptive Democratic nominee for governor in the November election, said Black’s ruling ‘‘begins to open the door to full marriage equality in Ohio’’ and criticized Governor John Kasich, a Republican, for opposing equal rights. Kasich spokesman Rob Nichols said in a statement: ‘‘The governor believes that marriage is between a man and a woman, he supports Ohio’s constitutional ban on same-sex marriage, and we’re glad the attorney general is appealing the ruling.’’