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BANGKOK — Thailand faced a blizzard of international criticism Thursday, and its consulate in Istanbul was ransacked, after it deported 109 ethnic Uighur refugees to China despite fears that they would face persecution there.

The UN refugee agency called Thailand’s action ‘‘a flagrant violation of international law.’’ The United States also condemned the deportations and expressed concern about protection of asylum-seekers in Thailand. Amnesty International said that the Muslim Uighurs could face detention or torture in China.

Protesters in Turkey, which has cultural ties to the Uighurs and accepted an earlier group of Uighur refugees from Thailand, ransacked the Thai Consulate overnight Wednesday. Police in the capital, Ankara, used pepper spray to push back Uighur protesters who tried to break through a barricade outside the Chinese Embassy.

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Turkey’s Foreign Ministry condemned Thailand, saying the deportation came despite ‘‘numerous initiatives’’ by Turkey to prevent the Uighurs’ repatriation. The office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees said it was ‘‘shocked,’’ having been given assurances by Thailand that the group would continue to receive protection.

Thai deputy government spokesman Major General Verachon Sukhonthapatipak said Thailand had assurances from Chinese authorities about the safety of the Uighurs. However, in Beijing, Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Hua Chunying said China would take action against those suspected of breaking the law.

Prime Minister Prayuth Chan-ocha of Thailand said that as a third country, the matter was not Thailand’s problem and that the place they were sent — he did not name China — would take care of it according to its justice system.

‘‘I’m asking if we don’t do it this way, then how would we do it?’’ he said. ‘‘Or do you want us to keep them for ages until they have children for three generations?’’

The Uighurs had been in Thailand for more than a year, along with others who had fled China and claimed to be Turkish, Verachon, said. Thai authorities sought to verify their nationalities before relocating them, he said.

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‘‘We found that about 170 of them were Turkish, so they were recently sent to Turkey,’’ he said. ‘‘And about 100 were Chinese, so they were sent to China as of this morning, under the agreement that their safety is guaranteed according to humanitarian principles.’’ He denied reports from Uighur activists that the refugees resisted deportation and some had been hurt.

Two witnesses who saw the Uighurs being led into trucks to be driven to Bangkok’s military airport said the men were handcuffed and some of women were crying and shouted, ‘‘Help us! Don’t allow them to send us back to China.’’

Bilal Degirmenci and a colleague from the Turkish humanitarian group Cansuyu said they were forced by police to delete photos and video they had taken of the Uighurs and were threatened with punishment if any were published or posted on the Internet.

The Uighurs are a Turkic-speaking Muslim minority in China’s far western Xinjiang region. The group has complained of harsh cultural and religious suppression as well as economic marginalization under Chinese rule.

Chinese officials contend the Uighurs left the country illegally. Beijing has accused Uighur separatists of terrorism in Xinjiang, where ethnic violence has left hundreds of people dead during the past two years.

‘‘China’s relevant departments will bring those who are suspected of committing serious crimes to justice according to law,’’ Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Hua told reporters. ‘‘As for those who are not suspected of committing crimes or who commit lesser offenses, we will find proper ways to deal with them.’’

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