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BRIDGEWATER, N.J. — President Trump threatened on Tuesday to unleash “fire and fury” against North Korea if it endangers the United States, as tensions with the isolated and impoverished nuclear-armed state escalate into perhaps the most serious foreign policy challenge yet in his administration.

In chilling language that evoked the horror of a nuclear exchange, Trump sought to deter North Korea from any actions that would put Americans at risk. But it was not clear what specifically would cross his line. Administration officials have said that a preemptive military strike, while a last resort, is among the options they have made available to the president.


“North Korea best not make any more threats to the United States. They will be met with fire and fury like the world has never seen,” Trump told reporters at his golf club in Bedminster, where he is spending much of the month on a working vacation.

Referring to North Korea’s volatile leader, Kim Jong Un, Trump said, “he has been very threatening beyond a normal state, and as I said, they will be met with fire and fury, and frankly power the likes of which this world has never seen before.”

Undaunted, North Korea warned several hours later that it was considering a strike that would create “an enveloping fire” around Guam, the Western Pacific island where the United States operates a key Air Force base. In recent months, US strategic bombers from Guam’s Anderson Air Force base have flown over Korea in a show of force.

“It is a daydream for the US to think that its mainland is an invulnerable heavenly kingdom,” the Strategic Force of the North’s Korean People’s Army, or KPA, said in a statement.

Trump’s stark comments went well beyond the firm but measured language typically preferred by US presidents in confronting North Korea, and indeed seemed almost to echo the bellicose words used by Kim. Whether it was mainly bluff or an authentic expression of intent, it instantly scrambled the diplomatic equation in one of the world’s most perilous regions.


Supporters suggested Trump was trying to get Kim’s attention in a way that the North Korean would understand, while critics expressed concern that he could stumble into a war with devastating consequences.

“This is a more dangerous moment than faced by Trump’s predecessors,” said Mark Dubowitz, chief executive of the Foundation for Defense of Democracies, a nonprofit group in Washington. “This language underscores that the most powerful country in the world has its own escalatory and retaliatory options.”

Senator Dianne Feinstein, Democrat of California, said it would be counterproductive. “President Trump is not helping the situation with his bombastic comments,” she said in a statement.

Senator John McCain, Republican of Arizona and chairman of the Armed Services Committee, also took exception. “All it’s going to do is bring us closer to some kind of serious confrontation,” he told KTAR News radio.

North Korea has accelerated its progress toward a working nuclear-tipped missile force since Trump took office vowing never to allow that to happen. Just last month, the North successfully tested for the first time an intercontinental ballistic missile that could reach the continental United States.

The Washington Post reported Tuesday that US intelligence agencies have concluded that North Korea has miniaturized a warhead that could fit on top of one of its missiles. The Japanese government also said in an annual threat assessment Tuesday that “it is possible that North Korea has already achieved the miniaturization of nuclear weapons and has acquired nuclear warheads.”


But experts said the main issue challenging North Korea is not miniaturization; the bombs are already judged small enough to fit on a ballistic missile, as a famous picture of Kim with a warhead seemed to make clear. The real test is whether a warhead can survive the intense heat of reentry as it plunges through the atmosphere from space, a hurdle North Korea is not believed to have overcome.

The UN Security Council unanimously adopted a new sanctions resolution against North Korea over the weekend, the eighth since the country conducted its first nuclear test in 2006. Backers of the resolution said the new sanctions would cut North Korea’s meager annual export revenue by about a third, impeding its ability to raise cash for its weapons programs.

Washington called the restrictions “the most stringent set of sanctions on any country in a generation.”

Even before Trump’s comments, North Korea’s militant response to the sanctions on Tuesday was the strongest indication yet that it could conduct another nuclear or missile test, as it had often done in response to past UN sanctions.

“Packs of wolves are coming in attack to strangle a nation,” the North Korean statement said. “They should be mindful that the DPRK’s strategic steps accompanied by physical action will be taken mercilessly with the mobilization of all its national strength,” it added, using the initials for the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.


Trump’s “fire and fury” response echoed the kind of language the North Koreans themselves have used in the past. In the last few years, North Korean officials and the government news agency have repeatedly warned the United States and South Korea against any preemptive attack, with “sea of fire” a favorite phrase.

Trump’s statement may have been aimed as much at Beijing as Pyongyang. By discussing military options, the administration may be attempting to convince China and its president, Xi Jinping, that the status quo is dangerous because it risks war.

“It may be a message to Xi Jinping, that you have to be doing more than just sanctions at the UN,” said Joseph Nye, a Harvard University scholar who once ran the US government’s National Intelligence Council.

But after so many warnings of a trade war with China and other belligerent statements, Trump’s threat would likely be interpreted by Xi as “another thumping-the-table” exercise, said Shi Yinhong, professor of international relations at Renmin University in Beijing.

Material from The Washington Post and the Associated Press was used in this report.