Texas officials identify victims of church massacre

People unload crosses outside the First Baptist Church which was the scene of the mass shooting that killed 26 people in Sutherland Springs, Texas on November 8, 2017. A gunman wearing all black armed with an assault rifle opened fire on a small-town Texas church during Sunday morning services, on November 5, killing 26 people and wounding 20 more in the last mass shooting to shock the United States. / AFP PHOTO / MARK RALSTONMARK RALSTON/AFP/Getty Images
AFP/Getty Images
People unloaded crosses outside the First Baptist Church in Sutherland Springs, Texas on Wednesday. Authorities identified the 26 victims of the massacre at the church Sunday.

Authorities in Texas on Wednesday identified the 26 victims of the church massacre in Sutherland Springs, Texas, three days after a black-clad gunman stalked through the pews of First Baptist Church and killed or wounded nearly every member of the congregation during services.

The attack tore through the small community outside San Antonio, with the shooter targeting children, a pregnant woman and senior citizens alike. Among the victims in the church were eight men and 17 women. Seven of those killed were 14 or younger. Officials said the toll of 26 dead included the unborn child of Crystal Marie Holcombe, who was pregnant. The other victims were between 1 and 77 years old.

Some of those killed in the massacre had already been identified, their painful stories related by friends, relatives and public officials. The full list captured the full scale of an attack in which mothers threw themselves atop children to protect them, and one family — the Holcombes — suffered losses spanning three generations.


Investigators have spent the days since the shooting probing the background of Devin P. Kelley, the 26-year-old gunman, who left behind a volatile, sometimes violent life riddled with warning signs before entering the church.

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Kelley, who killed himself after the rampage Sunday, had a string of troubling incidents in recent years, including a conviction for domestic assault, an escape from a mental health facility, and reports that he made death threats against his military superiors.

Law enforcement officials in Texas, while not publicly identifying a motive for the attack, said it occurred while Kelley was having a conflict with his relatives, particularly his mother-in-law, who attended the church but was not there during the rampage. Kelley had sent her threatening text messages, said Freeman Martin, a regional director with the Texas Department of Public Safety.

Martin said more information about the dispute might be found on Kelley’s phone, which was recovered after the shooting, but so far, investigators say they have been unable to see what is on the device.

The FBI said it has taken the phone to its facility in Quantico, Va., but have been unable to unlock it. According to people familiar with the matter, Kelley had an iPhone, the same type of phone that was at the center of a protracted fight between the FBI and Apple over encryption after a previous shooting rampage.


In the wake of the December 2014 attack in San Bernardino, Calif., which killed 14 people and wounded 22 others, the FBI said it was unable to access an iPhone used by one of the two shooters. The federal government sought to force Apple to help unlock the phone but the tech giant refused, and the dispute boiled over into a very public and, at times, remarkably bitter back-and-forth about encryption and security.

That particular fight was resolved not by the courts, but when the bureau said an outside group helped them access the phone’s data using a tool that then-FBI Director James Comey said would work on only a fraction of iPhones. Now the FBI and Apple are bracing for another potential fight, although the people familiar with the case said it could take weeks for the FBI to determine whether it can access the device’s data without Apple’s assistance.

Before the attack, Kelley had repeatedly come to the attention of local and military authorities in Texas and New Mexico, where he served in the Air Force. While he was in the Air Force, Kelley was court-martialed and convicted of abusing his wife and stepson; he pleaded guilty to both counts, including to beating the child ‘‘with a force likely to produce death or grievous bodily harm,’’ military documents show.

Kelley served a year behind bars and was discharged in May 2014. But while that conviction should have prevented him from buying or obtaining guns, he was able to buy one firearm each year between 2014 and 2017, federal officials said.

The Air Force said it failed to follow policies requiring it to alert federal law enforcement about this conviction, which apparently allowed Kelley to buy guns and pass background checks. The Pentagon launched a review of how this happened and will also investigate whether records from other cases across the Defense Department were properly reported.


New questions were raised about Kelley’s time in the Air Force after it emerged Tuesday that in 2012, while in the service, he escaped from a mental-health facility after getting caught sneaking guns onto the base and ‘‘attempting to carry out death threats’’ against military superiors, according to a police report.

In the police report, officers in El Paso wrote that they were told Kelley ‘‘was a danger to himself and others’’ and ‘‘was also facing military criminal charges.’’ The escape happened the same year he was court-martialed and convicted of domestic abuse.

In recent years, Kelley was also accused of sexual assault, a case police said remains open and under investigation. Officers were also summoned to his home after a report of abuse, though Kelley’s then-girlfriend denied that anything happened and police said they found no evidence of abuse. He had also complained right up until the church attack about lingering neck and head pain from a 2014 motorcycle crash.