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Below are the winners and losers from Thursday’s debate.

WINNERS

Senator Kamala Harris: People still underestimate Harris as a politician. And she seized the moment in her first presidential debate, charting a bold course. When the candidates talked over one another repeatedly, she raised her arms and silenced them. ‘‘Hey guys, you know, America does not want to witness a food fight; they want to know how we’ll put food on the table.’’ It worked. Then she spurred the signature exchange of the night — a planned effort, clearly, but an effective one — by going after former vice president Joe Biden on his record on race. ‘‘I do not believe you are a racist,’’ she began, before calling it ‘‘hurtful’’ that Biden played up his working relationships with segregationist senators. Then she worked in Biden’s past opposition to federal busing, talking about a little girl who was ‘‘bused to school every day, and that little girl was me.’’ Others tried to engage Biden, but Harris actually got it done. And she made it personal, speaking about the issue like nobody else onstage could.

Mayor Pete Buttigieg: The issue of race was a minefield for Buttigieg, and talking about his stewardship of South Bend, Ind. after police shot and killed a black man was inevitable. Then Buttigieg did something novel: He admitted some fault. Asked why he had so few black police in a diverse city, Buttigieg responded, ‘‘Because I couldn’t get it done.’’ If he can get past the problems in his hometown, his performance suggested future debates could be more fruitful.

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Senator Bernie Sanders: Yes, he disappeared for a large portion of the debate as others squabbled. But Sanders stayed on his message and did nothing to alienate his supporters. He also avoided the kind of attacks Biden got. If Senator Elizabeth Warren was unspectacular but successful Wednesday, Sanders seemed to emulate that, even as there was considerably more fighting going on around him.

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President Trump: We expected this debate to be largely about Trump, with Biden, Harris, and others previewing a strategy focused on the president. But in the end, they spent the majority of the time fighting among themselves and trying to get to one another’s left — including on Trump’s favorite issue of immigration.

LOSERS

Biden: We knew Biden was going to be attacked in this debate, given that he leads in the polls. We also knew that his opponents had plenty to work with and that he’d face tough questions about his lengthy period in public life. The combined result wasn’t great. His exchange with Harris was particularly brutal, but he also seemed to argue against the Obama administration’s record on deporting millions of undocumented immigrants. He offered a confusing answer on health coverage for undocumented immigrants. He at one point said of gun control, ‘‘Our enemy is the gun manufacturers, not the NRA’’ — which almost definitely isn’t what Democratic voters want to hear. And Harris eventually got him to take what was essentially a federalist position on busing. ‘‘I did not oppose busing,’’ he said. ‘‘I opposed busing ordered by the Department of Education.’’

The old Democratic Party on immigration: The way the Democrats talked about immigration was basically irreconcilable with how the party talked about this issue 10 or even five years ago. All 10 candidates said they favored health care coverage for undocumented immigrants. All but one — Senator Michael Bennet — raised their hands when asked whether crossing the border without documentation should be a civil rather than criminal offense. And many said they supported not deporting undocumented immigrants who haven’t committed serious crimes — including apparently Biden, who said such people ‘‘should not be the focus of deportation.’’ The Obama administration he served in deported millions of people, including lots who never committed serious crimes.

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Marianne Williamson: After getting her first question, she suggested her foes were too focused on policy rather than good slogans like Trump’s ‘‘Make America Great Again.’’ ‘‘If you think we’re going to beat Donald Trump by saying we’ve got a plan, you’ve got another thing coming,’’ she said. Later in the debate, when asked about what she would do if she could accomplish only one thing as president, she said it would be calling the leader of New Zealand to talk about making America great for children again — or something along those lines. It wasn’t entirely clear what she meant.