LONDON — A rough, whitish block recovered from an Elizabethan shipwreck may be a sunstone, the fabled crystal believed by some to have helped Vikings and other early seafarers navigate the high seas, researchers say.
In a paper published earlier this week, a Franco-British group argued that the Alderney Crystal — a chunk of Icelandic calcite found amid a 16th century wreck at the bottom of the English Channel — worked as a kind of solar compass, allowing sailors to determine the position of the sun even when it was hidden by heavy cloud, masked by fog, or below the horizon.
That’s because of a property known as birefringence, which splits light beams in a way that can reveal the direction of their source with a high degree of accuracy. Vikings may not have grasped the physics behind the phenomenon, but that wouldn’t present a problem.
‘‘You don’t have to understand how it works,’’ said Albert Le Floch, of the University in Rennes in western France. ‘‘Using it is basically easy.’’
Vikings were expert navigators — using the sun, stars, mountains, and even migratory whales to help guide them across the seas — but some have wondered at their ability to travel the long stretches of open water between Greenland, Iceland, and Newfoundland in modern-day Canada.
Le Floch is one of several who have suggested that calcite crystals were used as navigational aids for long summer days in which the sun might be hidden behind the clouds. He
said the use of such crystals may have persisted into the 16th century, by which time magnetic compasses were widely used but often malfunctioned.
Le Floch noted that one Icelandic legend — the Saga of St. Olaf — appears to refer to such a crystal when it says that Olaf used a ‘‘sunstone’’ to verify the position of the sun on a snowy day.
But that’s it. Few other medieval references to sunstones have been found, and no such crystals have been recovered from Viking tombs or ships.
Until the Alderney Crystal was recovered in 2002, there had been little if any hard evidence to back the theory.
Many specialists are still skeptical. Donna Heddle, the director of the Center for Nordic Studies at Scotland’s University of the Highlands and Islands, described the solar compass hypothesis as speculative.
‘‘There’s no solid evidence that that device was used by Norse navigators,’’ she said .
‘‘There’s never been one found in a Viking boat. One cannot help but feel that if there were such things they would be found in graves.’’