2 years of turmoil
Jan. 25-Feb. 11, 2011 Egyptians stage demonstrations against nearly 30 years of President Hosni Mubarak’s rule. Hundreds of protesters are killed as Mubarak and his allies try to crush the uprising.
Feb. 11 Mubarak steps down. The military dissolves Parliament and suspends the constitution, meeting two key demands of protesters.
Nov. 28, 2011-Feb 15, 2012 Egypt holds parliamentary elections. In the lawmaking lower house, the Muslim Brotherhood wins nearly half the seats, while the ultraconservative Salafis take another quarter.
May 23-24, 2012 The first round of voting in presidential elections has 13 candidates. The Muslim Brotherhood’s Mohammed Morsi and Ahmed Shafiq, the last prime minister under Mubarak, emerge as the top two finishers.
June 14 The Supreme Constitutional Court dissolves the lower house of Parliament.
June 16-17 Morsi elected with 51.7 percent of the vote.
Nov. 19 Members of liberal parties and representatives of Egypt’s churches withdraw from the 100-member assembly writing the constitution, protesting attempts by Islamists to impose their will.
Nov. 22 Morsi unilaterally decrees greater powers for himself, giving his decisions immunity from judicial review and barring the courts from dissolving the constituent assembly.
Dec. 4 More than 100,000 protesters march on the presidential palace, demanding a new constitution. The next day, Islamists attack an anti-Morsi sit-in, sparking battles that leave at least 10 dead.
Dec. 15, Dec. 22 In the two-round referendum, Egyptians approve the constitution, with 63.8 percent voting in favor.
Jan. 25, 2013 Hundreds of thousands hold protests against Morsi on the two-year anniversary of the revolt against Mubarak.
June 30 Millions of Egyptians demonstrate on Morsi’s first anniversary in office, calling on him to step down.
July 1 Huge demonstrations continue, and Egypt’s powerful military gives the president and the opposition 48 hours to resolve their disputes.
July 3 Egypt’s military chief announces that Morsi has been deposed until new presidential elections. Muslim Brotherhood leaders are arrested.
July 4 Supreme Constitutional Court Chief Justice Adly Mansour is sworn in as Egypt’s interim president.
July 8 Egyptian soldiers open fire on pro-Morsi demonstrators in Cairo, killing more than 50.
July 9 Mansour appoints economist Hazem el-Beblawi as prime minister and opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei as vice president.
July 27 Security forces and armed men in civilian clothes clash with Morsi supporters outside the larger of the two major sit-ins in Cairo, killing at least 80 people.
July 30 The European Union’s top diplomat, Catherine Ashton, holds a two-hour meeting with detained Morsi.
Aug. 11 Egyptian security forces announce that they will besiege the two sit-ins. But after Morsi supporters reinforce the sit-ins with thousands more protesters, authorities postpone taking action, saying they want to avoid bloodshed.
Aug. 14 Riot police clear two sprawling encampments of supporters of ousted President Mohammed Morsi, sparking running street battles. The presidency declares a monthlong state of emergency across the nation.