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HONG KONG (AP) — Masked protesters streamed into the streets in central Hong Kong on Friday after the city’s embattled leader invoked rarely used emergency powers to ban masks at rallies in a hardening of the government’s stance after four months of anti-government demonstrations.

Immediately defying the ban set to take effect Saturday, thousands of protesters crammed streets in the central business district shouting “Hong Kong, resist.”

Lam said at an afternoon news conference that the mask ban, imposed under a colonial-era Emergency Ordinance that was last used over half a decade ago, targets violent protesters and rioters and “will be an effective deterrent to radical behavior.”

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The ban applies to all public gatherings, both unauthorized and those approved by police.

Lam stressed it doesn’t mean the semi-autonomous Chinese territory is in a state of emergency. She said she would go to the legislature later to get legal backing for the rule.

A man wore a mask on the back of his head.
A man wore a mask on the back of his head.MOHD RASFAN

“We must save Hong Kong, the present Hong Kong and the future Hong Kong,” she said. “We must stop the violence ... we can’t just leave the situation to get worse and worse.”

Local media reported that two activists immediately filed legal challenges in court against the mask ban.

The ban makes the wearing of full or partial face coverings, including face paint, at public gatherings punishable by one year in jail. A six-month jail term could be imposed on people who refuse a police officer’s order to remove a face covering for identification.

Masks will be permitted for “legitimate need,” when their wearers can prove that they need them for work, health or religious reasons.

‘‘Will they arrest 100,000 people on the street? The government is trying to intimidate us but at this moment, I don’t think the people will be scared,’’ said a protester who gave his surname as Lui.

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Laurel Chor/Getty Images/Getty Images

Lam wouldn’t rule out a further toughening of measures if violence continues. She said she would not resign because “stepping down is not something that will help the situation” when Hong Kong is in “a very critical state of public danger.”

Thousands of masked protesters began marching in the city’s business district and other areas before Lam spoke. The rally grew in the evening as protesters vowed they wouldn’t be intimidated. Some used metal railings and other objects to block roads and set street fires, including burning a Chinese flag.

“The Hong Kong police are also wearing their masks when they’re doing their job. And they don’t show their pass and their number,” said protester Ernest Ho. “So I will still keep my mask on everywhere.’’

Face masks have become a hallmark of protesters in Hong Kong, even at peaceful marches. As the use of police tear gas has become widespread, many young protesters have worn heavier duty gear including full gas masks and goggles.

Even peaceful masked marchers cite fears they could lose jobs and be denied access to schooling, public housing and other government-funded services if identified as having taken part in demonstrations.

Many also are concerned their identities could be shared with the massive state-security apparatus that helps keep the Communist Party in power across the border in mainland China, where high-tech surveillance including facial recognition technology is ubiquitous.

Analysts said the use of the Emergency Ordinance set a dangerous precedent. The law, a relic of British rule enacted in 1922 to quell a seamen’s strike and last used to crush riots in 1967, gives broad powers to the city’s chief executive to implement regulations in an emergency.

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“Even though the mask ban is just a small move under the Emergency Ordinance, it is a dangerous first step. If the anti-mask legislation proves to be ineffective, it could lead the way to more draconian measures such as a curfew and other infringement of civil liberties,” said Willy Lam, adjunct professor at the Chinese University.

Lam bristled at a suggestion that the ban nudges Hong Kong closer to the authoritarian rule imposed by the Communist Party across the rest of China. She insisted she was not acting under orders from the central government in Beijing, which she visited this week when Communist Party leaders celebrated 70 years in power on Tuesday.

People protested a government ban on face masks.
People protested a government ban on face masks.Laurel Chor/Getty Images

The ban followed widespread violence in the city Tuesday that marred China’s National Day and included a police officer shooting a protester, the first victim of gunfire since the protests started in June over a now-shelved extradition bill. The wounded teenager was charged with attacking police and rioting.

The movement has snowballed into an anti-China campaign amid anger over what many view as Beijing’s interference in Hong Kong’s autonomy. More than 1,750 people have been detained so far.

Activists and many legislators have warned the mask ban could be counterproductive, impractical and difficult to enforce in a city bubbling with anger and where tens of thousands have often defied police bans on rallies.

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The government last month withdrew the extradition bill, widely slammed as an example of the erosion of Hong Kong’s freedom, but protesters have widened their demands to include direct elections of the city’s leaders, an independent inquiry into alleged police brutality, the unconditional release of protesters and not characterizing the protests as riots.

“Five demands, not one less!” many protesters shouted during Friday’s rallies as they held up five fingers.

Philip Fong

Here’s a look at how some other countries have dealt with masked protesters:

France

In March, following months of often violent yellow vest protests, the French Parliament passed a bill backed by President Emmanuel Macron’s government to further prevent violence during protests and to help authorities maintain order. The so-called ‘‘anti-troublemakers’’ law made a crime for protesters to conceal their faces, punishable by up to one year in prison and a 15,000 euro ($17,000) fine. The yellow vest movement broke out last winter to protest Macron’s economic policies seen as favoring the rich. Weekly demonstrations often turned into riots with people setting fires, ransacking luxury stores and clashing with police in Paris and other cities.

Spain

Although an early draft of the 2015 law on citizen security, popularly known as the ‘‘gag law,’’ banned covering faces during public protests, that wasn’t included in the final version approved by a majority of conservative lawmakers. The new law says the use of masks or other ways to cover one’s face will be considered an aggravating factor during the commission of an offense, and fines can be heftier if a protester commits another offense while disguising one’s identity.

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Russia

Following a wave of anti-government protests, Russia introduced a ban on covering faces at public gatherings, arguing that face masks prevent police from identifying protesters in case they commit an offense. Following a complaint from activists in a provincial city who covered their mouths with duct tape in protest of gender and sexual identity discrimination, the Constitutional Court in 2016 ruled that it is possible to cover your face in some ways. In practice, however, Russian police routinely pick up protesters who come out wearing masks of any sort.

Germany/Australia

It is illegal to cover your face during public rallies, although both far-right and left-wing protesters often try to get around it by wearing sunglasses, baseball caps and scarves.

Zimbabwe/South Africa

There is no law against wearing masks during protests in Zimbabwe, where frustration over a collapsing economy often erupts into street demonstrations. Some protesters in the southern African nation cover their faces to avoid being identified by police, who are accused of hunting down people afterward. In neighboring South Africa, where protests over poor service delivery and other issues are common, the law bans the wearing of disguises or masks that obscure facial features and prevent identification. But some demonstrators wear masks anyway, sometimes with the aim of protecting against tear gas, with little or no retaliation from police.

Australia

Australia doesn’t ban masks, but in its second most populous city, Melbourne, police can direct a demonstrator wearing a mask to leave a protest area. Police must reasonably believe the demonstrator is wearing the face covering primarily to conceal one’s identity or as protection against crowd-controlling substances such as capsicum spray. Those wearing mask who refuse to leave can be charged with failing to comply with a police direction without a responsible excuse.

South Korea

There is no mask ban in South Korea, where rallies are common but protesters wearing masks are rarely seen. In the past, prostitutes wearing masks, sunglasses and baseball caps to hide their identity rallied in Seoul to protest a government crackdown on red-light districts. Some defectors from North Koreas also put on masks and sunglasses to hide their faces because of safety worries about their relatives in North Korea. In the 1980s, many pro-democracy activists also wore masks because of the tear gas fired by police.

Thailand

After more than a decade of political unrest punctuated by a recurring cycle of anti-government protests and clashes with authorities, Thailand introduced a new Public Assembly Act in 2015 that severely restricts demonstrations. Among the regulations in the new law, which was passed by the rubber-stamp legislature of the military junta at the time, is a provision outlawing participants at public demonstrations from dressing in a way that intentionally conceals their identity.

The Palestinian Territories

Palestinians protesting in Gaza and the Israeli-occupied West Bank often wrap their faces in black-and-white checkered headscarves known as kuffiyehs, a symbol of their national cause. Israeli forces tend to focus on the most violent protesters _ those throwing rocks or firebombs _ and such protesters often cover their faces to conceal their identity and reduce the effects of tear gas. Israel is known to use undercover security agents wearing balaclavas or kuffiyehs who infiltrate protests and then arrest people. In recent demonstrations in the West Bank, organizers have urged protesters not to shield their faces in order to make it more difficult for the Israeli agents to blend in.