BRUSSELS — A summit meeting of European leaders collapsed Friday amid bitter discord over a new budget for the European Union, delivering a further blow to a 27-nation grouping already struggling to contain a debt crisis, social discontent fueled by rising unemployment, and doubts about the long-term viability of the euro currency.
Leaders abandoned efforts to set the shape of a trillion-euro long-term budget and called for a new round of talks early next year to try to reach a deal.
Prime Minister David Cameron of Britain, who along with the leaders of the Netherlands, Sweden, and several other countries had pushed hard for deep cuts, blasted proposals that left spending on the union’s administrative machinery intact.
This, he said at a news conference, showed that ‘‘Brussels continues to exist as if in a parallel universe,’’ referring to the headquarters for the union’s institutions.
The refusal to trim bureaucratic costs, which amount to about 6 percent of total spending, is ‘‘insulting to European taxpayers’’ when many governments are slashing spending, Cameron said.
The impasse after two days of negotiations was the second failure this week in Brussels. European finance ministers met all night Monday without reaching agreement on whether to release the next round of emergency aid to Greece, where unemployment is around 25 percent.
Herman Van Rompuy, the president of the European Council, who convened the summit meeting and called off the negotiations rather than prolonging them through the weekend, said that the European Union’s budget ‘‘has to be balanced and well prepared, not in the mood of improvisation, because we are touching upon jobs, we are touching upon sensitive issues.’’
“We should be able to bridge existing divergences’’ in the new year, Van Rompuy said.
Much of the attention at the meeting focused on Cameron, who rallied a group of other countries in favor of deep cuts to the Multiannual Financial Framework, a seven-year spending plan.
Disagreements over where the ax should fall left France and Germany on different sides, disrupting a Franco-German tandem without which significant deals in Europe rarely happen.
France defended payments to farmers, which make up around 40 percent of the current budget, but insisted there was no rupture with Germany.
“I don’t only defend the position of France, but the position of Europe as a whole,’’ President Francois Hollande said at a news conference.
The negotiating marathon over the budget is held every seven years. The focus on hard cash tends to push national interests to the fore and swamp talk of European harmony, a cause for which the Norwegian Nobel Committee last month named the European Union as the recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize.
The budget, which amounts to about $168 billion per year, goes mostly to subsidize farmers and support regional projects in poorer member states, policies that were originally intended to help bind Europe together and mute the economic discord that in the past fueled antagonisms that led to bloody wars.