Tensions rise as more Jews visit Muslim-controlled site

Numbers atop Temple Mount could provoke

A security officer escorted a Jewish man at Al Aksa Mosque on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem. There are rules against non-Muslim prayer there.
Rina Castelnuovo/New York Times
A security officer escorted a Jewish man at Al Aksa Mosque on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem. There are rules against non-Muslim prayer there.

JERUSALEM — Small groups of Jews are increasingly ascending the Temple Mount in Jerusalem’s Old City, a sacred site controlled for centuries by Muslims, who see the visits as a provocation that could undermine the fragile peace talks started this summer.

For decades the Israelis drawn to the site were mainly a fringe of hard-core zealots, but now more mainstream Jews are lining up to enter, as a widening group of Israeli politicians and rabbis challenges the longstanding rules constraining Jewish access and conduct.

Brides go on their wedding days, synagogue and religious-school groups make regular outings, and many surreptitiously skirt the ban on non-Muslim prayer, like a Russian immigrant who daily recites the morning liturgy in his mind, as he did decades ago in the Soviet Union.


Palestinian leaders say the new activity has created the worst tension in memory around the landmark Al Aksa Mosque and Dome of the Rock, and have called on Muslims to defend the site from “incursions.” A spate of stone-throwing clashes erupted this month.

Rina Castelnuovo/New York Times
Palestinian women protested outside the Temple Mount, where groups of Jews are increasingly going.
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On Wednesday, three Muslims were arrested and an Israeli police officer was wounded in the face. And Friday, thousands of Arab citizens of Israel rallied in the north, warning that Al Aksa is in danger.

“We reject these religious visits,” Sheik Ekrima Sa’eed Sabri, who oversees Muslim affairs in Jerusalem, said in an interview. “Our duty is to warn,” he added. “If they want to make peace in this region, they should stay away from Al Aksa.”

The 37-acre site is perhaps the most religiously contested place on earth. Jews revere it as the home of the First and Second Temples more than 2,000 years ago.

For Muslims, who call the site the Noble Sanctuary, it is the world’s third-holiest spot, from which Mohammed is believed to have ascended to heaven. More than 300,000 foreign tourists also flock there annually, many of them Christians drawn to the ruins of the temple Jesus attended.


Politically, the competing claims to the area are the nut around which the Israeli-Palestinian conflict revolves, the symbolic heart of each side’s religious and historical attachment to Jerusalem that has made its governance one of the thorniest issues in peace negotiations.

Over the last few years, a cause long taken up by only a fringe group of far right-wingers has increasingly been embraced by the modern Orthodox — known here as religious Zionists — who have also gained political power. At three recent Parliament hearings, religious lawmakers and cabinet ministers questioned the status quo, in which non-Muslims can enter the site only for a few hours five days a week, and those identified by the police as Jews are separated, escorted by police officers and admonished not to dance, sing, bow down, or even move their lips in prayer. Amid the pilgrims Wednesday was Michal Berdugo, 25, a secular Israeli who said it had been her “dream for three years” to visit. “It’s part of who we are,” she said.

The recent shift has many roots. For years, most authorities on Jewish law said Jews should not enter the complex for fear of treading on the ancient temple’s holiest spots, but recent archaeological work has led some moderate and even liberal Orthodox rabbis to lift those bans.

At the same time, activists have stepped up their campaign for access and prayer at the Temple Mount, part of a broader push to cement Jewish control of all of Jerusalem.

Experts who have observed the phenomenon also see it as a reaction to Israel’s evacuation of Jews from the Gaza Strip in 2005, a redirection of Messianic energy once devoted to West Bank settlements that many fear could soon succumb to the same fate to make way for a Palestinian state.

Rina Castelnuovo/New York Times
Israeli security officers stood at the entrance after clashes. A trickle of visitors has given way to groups of dozens.

“The war for the land of Israel is not just political, but essentially spiritual,” said Yossi Klein Halevi, author of a new book that traces the lives of paratroopers who seized the Mount in 1967. “Given that the Temple Mount is the focal point of holiness in the Holy Land, the thinking is that we need to go to the source in order to prevent the further partition of the land.”

Israeli police statistics show that visits by people identified as Jews rose to 8,247 in 2011 from 5,792 in 2010, then dipped slightly last year. The figure is on track to top 2011’s total this year, with 5,609 Israelis coming through July. Crowds — and clashes — are expected Sunday and Monday for Sukkot.

While the numbers remain tiny compared with the 10 million annual visitors to the Western Wall below, Palestinian officials say that what used to be a trickle of individuals has given way to groups of 40, 60, 90.

They were particularly alarmed that the Israeli police commissioner told a newspaper this month that “every Jew who wishes to pray at the Temple Mount can pray on the Temple Mount,” although his subordinates said afterward that that did not change the police policy on the ground preventing non-Muslim prayer. A recent visit by the right-wing housing minister also stirred outrage.

“Before, it was some settlers from here, some extremists from there; now we start to hear it from the real officials,” said Adnan Husseini, the Palestinian governor of Jerusalem. “When they get inside with this big number, it’s sure that they will make some kind of religious activities and there will be more friction between them and the people inside the mosque.”

The Palestinians have complained to the United Nations, the Arab League, and US Secretary of State John Kerry, most recently after Wednesday’s clash, when the chief Palestinian negotiator wrote to Kerry, saying that the issue “could inflame the situation and undermine the current opportunity to move toward peace.”

Israel’s chief rabbinate maintains that the Mount is off limits to Jews — a sign saying so is posted at the gate. But a senior Israeli official, speaking on the condition of anonymity, said the government supported “in principle” Jews’ rights to pray there.