KIEV — Ukraine’s interim authorities on Thursday accused fugitive president Viktor Yanukovych of ordering snipers to open fire on protesters and getting help from Russian security agents to battle his own people, but they provided no evidence directly linking him to the bloodbath in Kiev that killed more than 100 people.
Acting Interior Minister Arsen Avakov also accused former interior minister Vitali Zakharchenko, who was in charge of police, of recruiting gangs of killers, kidnappers, and thugs to terrorize and undermine the opposition during the monthslong protests.
The inquiry revealed by Kiev’s new leadership examined the months of antigovernment protests that culminated in the bloodshed of Feb. 20, just days before Yanukovych fled to Russia.
Speaking at a televised news conference, Avakov said police snipers shot at demonstrators near Kiev’s Independence Square, also known as the Maidan, as they walked toward the government district. He said that 17 people were killed by snipers positioned at the October Palace cultural center and that one sniper alone killed as many as eight people.
Security officials then moved to cover up and destroy evidence to ensure that any investigations would be impossible, Avakov said.
‘‘Clothes were burned, weapons discarded, and documents destroyed,’’ he said.
Security Service chief Valentyn Nalyvaichenko charged that Yanukovych himself ordered the killings.
‘‘What was planned under the guise of an antiterrorist operation, and which was in fact an operation of mass killing of people, took place under the immediate and direct leadership of former president Yanukovych,’’ Nalyvaichenko said. He did not elaborate on where he got his information.
In an interview, Yanukovych firmly denied that he gave orders to shoot demonstrators, saying that members of his inner circle even criticized him for his reluctance to use force during the monthslong protests.
Nalyvaichenko also said there was evidence that Russia’s FSB security service assisted in attempts to suppress the antigovernment protests. He said that FSB members were deployed at a Ukrainian security facility and that they took part in planning and implementing antiprotest measures. He said the Russians even interrogated the Ukrainian security chief.
Nalyvaichenko contended that in late January, when peaceful protests turned into bloody street clashes with police, Russia sent planes to Kiev carrying explosives, arms, and crowd control devices ‘‘to organize executions and the extermination of our protesters on the Maidan.’’
Russia’s FSB swiftly dismissed the claims, telling the state news agency RIA Novosti on Thursday that the allegations should ‘‘rest on the conscience of the Ukrainian Security Service.’’
Prosecutor General Oleh Makhnitsky said 12 members of an elite riot police unit called ‘‘Black Squadron’’ have been detained on suspicion of shooting protesters.
The identity of the snipers believed to be responsible for most of the deaths is the subject of bitter disagreement.
Opponents of Ukraine’s new leadership deny that only police were to blame, contending some snipers were organized by opposition leaders trying to whip up outrage.
The new health minister, Oleh Musiy, who previously served as the protesters’ top medic, has said he treated both protesters and riot police with similar types of sniper wounds.
On Thursday, officials skirted a question on whether snipers also shot at police. Avakov said establishing who was responsible for the deaths of law enforcement officers would be part of the broad investigation, which is still ongoing.
Avakov also detailed what he described as overwhelming evidence linking Zakharchenko, the former interior minister, to a person coordinating hired thugs who beat and intimidated opposition activists.
Avakov said another underworld figure operating under the patronage of Yanukovych and Zakharchenko ran a group of 10 people carrying out beatings and kidnappings of protest organizers, including the kidnapping of a prominent activist and his colleague, who was killed in the attack.
In the weeks since the February killings, Russia seized and then formally annexed Crimea, Ukraine’s strategic Black Sea peninsula, and the United States and the European Union slapped sanctions on those responsible, mainly Russian President Vladimir Putin’s inner circle. On Wednesday, President Obama signed into law a bill providing $1 billion in loan guarantees to Ukraine.
In his interview, Yanukovych said he was wrong to invite Russian troops into Crimea, which was swiftly annexed by Moscow after a referendum in which the vast majority of residents backed a reunion with Russia.
Ukraine’s fledgling government and Western leaders have expressed concern about a buildup of tens of thousands of Russian forces near the Ukrainian border. On Thursday, the European Aviation Safety Agency advised planes to avoid the airspace over Crimea because of possible risks posed by the two countries seeking to control the sky in the region.